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Kotanko,2 N. Levin,2 B. Maria delle Croci, Ravenna, Italy. Dept nephrology, Univ clinical centre, Skopje, F.

Vifor Pharma, Glattbrugg, Switzerland. De Goeij, Friedo W Dekker. Centro Renal, Quilpue, Chile. Stoyan Kirkovich, Stara Zagora, Bulgaria.

Nephrology, Govt. Gallen, Switzerland; 7Gr. Dimas,1 Fotios S. Iliadis,1 Thomas J. Tegos,2 Sofia G. Spiroglou,3 Christos G. Pitsalidis,2 Ioannis M.

Karamouzis,4 Triantafyllos P. Didaggelos,1 Alexandra P. Adamidou,1 Christos G. Savopoulos,1 Michael I. Karamouzis,3 Anastasios G.

Orologas,2 Apostolos I. Hatzitolios,1 Dimitrios M. Nephrology and Dialysis, A. Manzoni Hosp, Lecco, Italy. Heid,1,3 Carsten A.

E, Faro, Portugal. Brotzu, Cagliari, Italy. Julian,1 Yasuhiko Tomino,2 Ali G. Gharavi,4 Jan Novak. Margit Hosp, Budapest, Hungary.

Lopez-Novoa,1,2,4 Carlos Martinez-Salgado. Kobayashi,2,3 Richard A. Flavell,2 HansJoachim Anders. ProMetic BioSciences Inc. Lopez-Novoa,1,2,3 Carlos Martinez-Salgado.

Brocca,1,2 G. De Cal,1,2 C. Venkatareddy,1 Marboob A. Chowdhury,1 Su Q. Wang,1 Akihiro Fukuda,2 Larysa T. Wickman,1 Yan Yang,1 Roger C.

Kosa, Belgrade, Serbia. Matteo and Univ Pavia, Pavia, Italy. Bortolo Hosp, Vicenza, Italy. Nephrology and Dialysis Unit, S. Dolores Checa Andres.

Tsikliras, Sophia Mademtzoglou, Elias V. Korte,1 N. Braun,2 S. Habib,3 E. Goffin,4 A. Summers,5 L Heuveling,6 M.

Dialysis, Osp Mauriziano, Turin, Italy. A Pietrzycka,2 P. Galaverni,3 Rita Golfieri,3 Sergio Stefoni. Orsola Univ Hosp, Bologna, Italy.

Univ Clinic Nephrology, Skopje, F. Charles Nicole Hosp, Tunis, Tunisia. Rodriguez-Murillo,2 Josepm.

Macdougall,1 Rebecca J. Mayo,2 Nina Oestreicher,2 Brigitte Schiller. AND S. Strossmayer Univ Osijek, Osijek, Croatia.

Gunnar Sterner, Naomi Clyne. Toblli, Federico P. Di Gennaro. Hemodialysis Unit, Diaverum, Paris, France. Dialysis Network, B.

Matteo, Univ Pavia, Pavia, Italy. Nephrology and Hemodialysis, Fond S. Maugeri, Univ Pavia, Pavia, Italy. Maria Imbaro, Italy.

Fernandez, Buenos Aires, Argentina. Suzanne Laplante,1 Peter Rutherford. SS Nephrology and Dialysis, S. Paul General Hosp, Thessaloniki, Greece.

Nephrology, Urology and nephrology center, Mansoura, Egypt. Sophia Mademtzoglou, Nikolaos Ch.

Tsikliras, Elias V. Vatazin, Alexey B. Nephrology, Hosp 12 de octubre, Madrid, Spain. Egido,2 Manuel Praga.

Neumayer, Klemens Budde, Lutz Liefeldt. Adema,1 Wim Th. Van Dorp,1 Marko J. Mallat,2 Hans W. De Fijter. Norma V.

Remuzzi Will it one day be possible to engineer a complete kidney? Fevzi Ersoy, Antalya, Turkey Sudden death in dialysis patients: why? Adrian Covic, Iasi, Romania www.

Why should we care? Mutsaers, Nijmegen, The Netherlands www. Cristian Pattaro. Drueke, on behalf of the Evolve Writing Committee.

Sequeira-Lopez,4 Sebastian Bachmann,2 R. Boumpas, Athens, Greece www. How to manage for getting patients transplanted?

Mostovaya,2 Peter J. Blankestijn,2 Michiel L. Bots,3 Marinus A. Van Den Dorpel,4 Menso J. Ter Wee,1 Muriel P.

Anouk T. Krediet, Dick G. Mini Lecture Persistent post-infectious glomerulonephritis: does it exist?

Jan T. Kielstein, Hanover, Germany www. Reusz, Budapest, Hungary www. Dahlke, Regensburg, Germany High or low doses of thymoglobulin for induction therapy?

Vlahu,1 Liffert Vogt,1 Dick G. Struijk,1,2 Hans Vink,3 Raymond T. Peter Stenvinkel, Stockholm, Sweden www.

Inst Nephrology, Nanjing, China. Mini Lecture Is the kidney biopsy currently necessary in the management of lupus nephritis?

Apostolos Zaravinos,1 George I. Andrey V. Vatazin, Pavel V. Astakhov, Alexey B. Surgical Dept transplantation and dialysis, M.

Dept nephrology, Ruijin Hosp, Shanghai, China. Lomonosov, Moscow, Russian Federation. Nephrology, G. Brotzu Hosp, Cagliari, Italy.

Hamlyn,2 Marco Simonini,1 Paolo Manunta. Rapp, S. Raab, U. Sprecher, J. Funk, C. Apfel, K. Ilatovskaya,1 A. Andreev-Andrievsky,1 V. Pozdnev,2 A.

Iliyn,3 N. Nephrology, Medical Univ, Bialystok, Poland. Sklifosovsky, Moscow, Russian Federation. Daher,1 Ana Patricia F. Vieira,1 Juliana B.

Souza,1 Felipe S. Falcao,1 Cristiane R. Costa,1 Anna Allicy C. Fernandes,1 Rosa M. Mota,1 Rafael S.

Lima,1 Geraldo B. Silva Junior. Paolo Lentini,1 L Zanoli,2 A. Granata,3 A. Bortolo, Vicenza, Italy. UHC, Tirana, Albania.

Vieira,1 Camilla N. Jacinto,1 Krasnalhia Livia S. Abreu,1 Geraldo B. Leite Filho,1 Louize Emanuele O. Souza,1 Raissa M. Cavalcante,1 Geraldo B.

Silva Junior,2 Bruna M. Morais,1 Tacyano T. Leite,1 Sonia L. Silva,2 Marcus Kubrusly,1 Elizabeth F.

Product Research, Chugai Pharmaceutical Co. Cases,5 J. Calls,6 A. Martinez-Castelao,3 M. Munar,5 A. Clinic, Barcelona, Spain; 2H.

Puerta de Hierro, Madrid, Spain; 3H. Bellvitge, Barcelona, Spain; 4H. Son Dureta, Mallorca, Spain; 6H.

Manacor, Mallorca, Spain. Bellvitge, Barcelona, Spain; 2H. Clinic, Barcelona, Spain; 3H. La Paz, Madrid, Spain; 4H. Josep Trueta, Girona, Spain.

Gerardo Hosp, Monza, Italy. Cappuccino,1 G. Garibotto,1 E. Villaggio,1 F. Gianiorio,1 M. Mij,2 F.

Viazzi,1 G. Salvidio,1 D. Tsotakos, Effie C. Tsilibary, Garyfalia I. Nephrology Dept, Inst Therapy named after L.

Tong Ji Univ, Shanghai, China. Dimas,1 Thomas J. Pitsalidis,2 Athanasios S. Sioulis,1 Ioannis M. Karamouzis,4 Christos G.

Marino, C. Martorano, M. Bellantoni, R. Tripepi, C. Manisha Sahay. Medical Univ Sofia, Sofia, Bulgaria. MP P. Nephrology, H. U 12 de Octubre, Madrid, Spain.

Abdul Muqueet. Rosenkranz,1 Kathrin Eller,1 Philipp Eller. Klinkhammer,1 Marcus J. Southeast Univ, Inst Nephrology, nanjing, China.

Orsola-Malpighi, Bologna, Italy. Nephrology, Osp Riuniti, Ancona, Italy. Ziebig,2 Hartmut Wolf,3 Peter Ahrenholz. Rovatti,1 E. Grandi,1 D.

Stefani,1 M. Ruffo,1 K. Solem,2 B. Olde,2 A. Santoro,3 G. Spirito Hosp, Casale Monferrato, Italy. Mechnikov, St. Peterburg, Russian Federation.

Ltd, Kanagawa, Japan. Calydial, Lyon, France. Schwarz,2 Gert Mayer. Braun Avitum Dialysis Center, N. Brian Copley,5 Denis Fouque. Medic, Sapporo, Japan.

Zhelyazkova-Savova, D. Gerova, D. Paskalev, V. Ikonomov, R. Zortcheva, B. Medical Univ Varna, Varna, Bulgaria. Mauro Work Group. Nephrology, A.

Herrero, Aniana Oliet,1 Ana Vigil. Gluhovschi,1 Cristian Balgradean,2 Adriana Kaycsa. Baskent Univ Hosp, Ankara, Turkey.

Mar Lago Alonso,2 M. Nephrology, Inje Univ, Busan, Korea. Nephrology, Hosp Peset, Valencia, Spain.

Petersburg, Russian Federation. Melk,1 D. Kracht,1 A. Doyon,2 R. Zeller,3 M. Litwin,4 A. Duzowa,5 B. Bayzit,7 S. Caliskan,8 U. Querfeld,3 E.

Schaefer,2 B. Said,1 Magid A. Abdel Fattah,1 Dina A. Soliman,2 Sahar Y. Sheren Esam Maher. Farid, Ihab Z. El-Hakim, Mohamed A.

Raffaele Scientific Inst, Milan, Italy. Mustafa Arici, Ankara, Turkey www. Martin,1 Eva M. Ivanov,1 Mariia D. Bogomolets, Kiev, Ukraine.

ChemoCentryx Inc. We are here, join us! Andreas Vychytil, Vienna, Austria www. Mini Lecture Is there a risk of cardiovascular disease in renal stone formers?

Braun Hamidiye Novartis Oncology www. Chair: Claudio Ronco, Vicenza, Italy What roles do large uremic solutes have for the high morbidity and mortality in patients on dialysis?

Richard Ward, Louisville, USA Can chronic inflammation in hemodialysis patients be modified by the dialysis treatment?

Virpi Rauta, Helsinki, Finland How can I set up a home dialysis program and support patients at home?

Braun www. Booth No. H11 Alexion Pharmaceuticals U25 Allmed Medical P3 Ameco Medical F11 Amgen D12 Asahi Kasei Medical Europe E10 Atcor Medical C12 Atrium Europe C6 Awak Technologies Braun Avitum Q7 Bain Medical T11 Bantao D15A Baskent University C11A Baxter Healthcare P5 Bellco H3 Binding Site R3 BioPorto Diagnostics H12 Bodystat C8 CrystalClear D13A Culligan D9 DaVita C3 Diacare Soft D5 Diaverum O16 Dirinco O1 Dustri H9 DWA Q1 EffeEmme H1 Emodial C11B Etropal U7 Euroclinic E14 Farmasol C7 Fresenius Kabi M7 Fresenius Medical Care E8 Gambro E6 Genzyme, a Sanofi Company Q11 Glomeria Therapeutics D11B Hemo Sapiens D14 Herco Wassertechnik D10 www.

C10 Infomed E11 Janssen J7 Jihua Medical F19 Joline E15 Karger H10 Kawasumi Laboratories F17 Labor Limbach U11 Lauer Q7 Likamed O20 Mahan Med Meymeh Kish C2 Medcomp P11 Medica Italia N1 Medical Devices Corp B6 Medikit T10 Medvision R4 Medxl C1 Membrana O8 Miltenyi Biotec S12 Mone Medical U13 Nikkiso Europe R5 Ningbo Tianyi Medical H2 Nipro Europe K6 NxStage Medical U17 Otsuka Pharmaceutical Europe L8 PakuMed E16 Pharmacosmos R7 Physidia C9 Renal Ilac D4 Roche K7 Sanofi Q11 Serumwerk Bernburg T9 Silver Med D11A Soludia Maghreb G1 Suisse Med Technologies P8 Synlab Services B2 Takeda Europe F5 Teva Pharmaceuticals F3 Thermo Fisher Scientific C5 Toray B7 Wichtig B4 www.

Our commitment to kidney care and kidney patients endures. Emerging from Abbott with a year history of patient care, AbbVie is a research-based specialty biopharmaceuticals company with a broad portfolio of medicines - including leadership in immunology and virology, and a pipeline of breakthrough therapies.

We have been increasing our distribution all over the world thanks to big efforts in promoting our products.

Our sales strategy is based on building a long term relationship with all our partners providing quality and service. We produce reliable, strong and comfortable products because we do care.

Come and join us so that we can expand business together! Alexion is evaluating other potential indications for Soliris and is developing four other highly innovative biotechnology product candidates.

Booth U25 Alexion Pharmaceuticals is a global biopharmaceutical company focused on serving patients with severe and ultra-rare disorders through the innovation, development and commercialization of lifetransforming therapeutic products.

Alexion Turkey was established in Istanbul in The membrane is unique for its unprecedented Micro-Undulation Technology. Capitalizing on its long experience in the field of hemodialysis, Allmed is able to give personalised service and assistance to its customers.

Booth F11 Ameco is manufacturer and OEM supplier for a full range of dialysis,interventional Urology, central venous catheters, sheath introducers and more..

UniQath is our new mid term catheter. History of success stories to comply with all customer requirements. Booth H5 Amgen discovers, develops and delivers innovative human therapeutics.

Amgen therapeutics have changed the practice of medicine, helping millions of people in the fight against cancer, kidney disease, rheumatoid arthritis and other serious illnesses.

With particular expertise in biostatistical analysis, clinical practice, the management and integration of large data sets, economics, and public policy, Arbor Research engages in health outcomes research on chronic disease and end-stage organ failure.

It serves the global market with hemodialysis, therapeutic apheresis, and blood transfusion products.

AtCor is now providing an easyto-use cuff based system in addition to the existing range of products.

Booth C6 Atrium has been a leader in medical device technologies for interventional cardiology and radiology, chest trauma care and thoracic drainage, vascular surgery, and general surgery.

For more information please visit www. Booth F9 AWAK Technologies has developed an advanced sorbent technology for dialysate regeneration for both peritoneal dialysis and hemodialysis.

The vision of having light-weight portable and wearable dialysis machine, providing freedom to patients, is now a reality.

Booth Q7 Always with Passion. Braun Avitum is a leading provider of dialysis care products. The B. Braun Avitum product range includes dialysis machines and dialysis consumables for chronic and acute dialysis as well as a comprehensive product portfolio for special blood cleansing processes to treat conditions such as lipid metabolic disorders.

Braun Avitum manufactures top quality dialysis machines, dialyzers e. We have strong technical strength, comprising an experienced team with expertise and high technologies from Europe and Japan.

Presently Bain specializes in manufacturing and distributing hemodialyzer, tubing sets for hemodialysis, disposable AV fistula needle sets, and tubing disposables for hemodialysis, all with leading technologies in the industry.

Booth 15A BANTAO Balkan Cities Association of Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation and Artificial Organs , founded in , represents an extraordinary initiative, permitting an exchange of experience and knowledge among experts from this region and to elaborate different forms of collaboration.

Please visit: www. The founder and honarary president, Prof. Mehmet Haberal, performed the first successful transplantation surgery in Turkey and is renowned worldwide in the medical community.

Baskent University has a broad spectrum of faculties in all branches of science including medicine; dentistry; engineering; administration, social,political financial sciences and law.

Above all, the main interesting field of the university is medicine. The university has 12 hospitals, dialysis centers and burn units all over the country and works therefore in a medical network.

Besides all medical departments,our scientific efforts are especially concentrated in the fields of liver,heart and kidney transplantations,HLA typing and immunogenetics and burn care.

Contact Person: Pharm. Feyyaz Artukoglu www. Baxter, in partnership with DEKA Research and Development Corporation, is developing innovative technologies aimed at employing a compact design and convenient use for patients, such as a new automated PD cycler and High Dose HD technology platform.

Since , Bellco mission has been dedicated to advanced therapeutic systems for end stage renal disease patients, with increasing focus on personalized treatments for critical ill patients.

Bellco stands out for the Collaborative Research with the goal of sharing know-how and innovation with the scientific and medical communities.

Upon these premises, Bellco provides its contribution to the Collaborative Research Club. Complex clinical conditions, such as those of the ever larger number of elderly and critical patients undergoing surgery, with multiple traumas, sepsis, multiorgan failure, cardiomiopathy, affected by immune pathologies and intoxication require an integrated flexible and user minded approach.

Booth H12 The ability to diagnose acute kidney injury AKI at an early time point is essential for improving the management and outcome of patients at risk of AKI.

The biomarker NGAL has been shown to outperform current kidney status markers such as serum creatinine and cystatin C because it responds much earlier and shows a proportionate response to injury.

The MultiScan uses the latest in Cole Modelling to display the volume of over-hydration during renal failure and haemodialysis.

All our products have CE marking. Crystal Clear LTD. We are certified according to ISO We are offering wide range of productivity of reverse osmosis systems suitable for all types of dialysis centers.

Crystal Clear Ltd. CSN connects more than members working in dialysis units, 7 transplant centers, several universities and many regional hospitals and outpatient units.

Apart of its role in renal health care and educational activities, CSN also provides regular research grants. Nephrology has a long tradition in the Czech Republic.

The first acute dialysis was performed in , a chronic dialysis programme started in the early 60ies, and a transplantation programme in This was reflected by many important international meetings held in Prague: The 2nd Congress of the International Society of Nephrology , 17th Congress of the European Dialysis and Transplantation Association and the 15th Congress of the European Society of Artificial Organs Booth D2 Chinese Society of Nephrology CSN was founded in as a non-profit organization, with a mission to improve the medical care and prevention of kidney diseases, to strengthen the scientific research on nephrology, to promote Sino-foreign academic exchange and collaboration, to disseminate healthcare knowledge of kidney diseases to the public, and ultimately to develop nephrology in China.

CSN provides a broad spectrum of different activities, co-organizing since annually ERA-EDTA Postgraduate Training Courses, national congresses on a biannual basis the last, 35th congress, in , educational symposia and scientific meetings.

Please visit : www. As a global leader in water treatment, Culligan has dedicated service technicians in your area who are experts in local water quality.

These skilled personnel are on-call to service equipment so it always operates at high efficiency.

Going beyond just water treatment, Culligan offers custom-engineered, modular solutions to improve your business and your bottom line.

As of February 28, , DaVita operated or provided services at 1, outpatient dialysis centers located in the United States serving approximately , patients, and 40 outpatient dialysis centers located in nine countries outside the United States.

Booth O16 At Diaverum, our mission is to improve the quality of life for renal patients by revitalising them both physically and emotionally.

Our experience in renal care dates back 20 years, when the first dialysis clinic was established, previously under our former name Gambro Healthcare.

Today, 6, employees care for more than 20, patients in 17 countries in Europe, Latin America, Middle East and Australia. For more information visit www.

Booth D5 Diacare-Soft Ltd is a developer of automated diagnostic and treatment process DTP management information system Maximus, focused primarily on the area of nephrology and dialysis.

The main activities of the company are: - Analysis of the subject and problem areas, development of goals and criteria of the system; - Development of business processes of the Department of Nephrology and Hemodialysis; - Design of medical information systems, from automatically collecting data from medical measuring equipment and maintaining the medical record to issuing reports and monitoring the actions of patients and staff; - The development of decision support systems, including diagnosis, optimization of treatment programs, analysis of cause-effect relationships, visualization of DTP parameters; - The creation of a formalized medical knowledge base, its scientific and practical use; - Development and implementation of software, informational and organizationally-methodical support of DTP control systems for the Departments of Nephrology and Hemodialysis and neighboring areas of medicine.

Booth O1 Dirinco is an innovative company in the market of hemodialysis and acute renal care since 27 years. Dirinco is the global market leader for citrate catheter lock solutions.

This year Citra-Lock has its 10 years birthday, since it was launched in Since then, over 10 million vials Citra-Lock were used in dialysis catheters.

Citra-Lock prevents catheter related bacteremia and catheter clotting of central venous catheters. Citra-Lock is used worldwide and has become the recommended standard lock solution in Europe.

Booth H9 For almost 40 years, Clinical Nephrology, a DustriVerlag publication, has been one of the leading journals in its field.

Under the editorship of H. Also ask for our special fellowship program. DWA develops systems for production of ultrapure permeate and its distribution right to the dialysis machine.

Our expertise in water treatment covers all aspects from the pre-treatment stages, through reverse osmosis, ultrafiltration and hot cleaning systems, right up to the supply connection through to the dialysis machine.

Booth E1 We have been producing bloodlines and accessories for haemodialysis treatments for 30 years.

Our company structure, always evolving, allows us to promptly react to the increasing requirements of the market. Our customers have confidence in us as a reliable partner with a track record of long lasting cooperation.

On time delivery and service are our standard. Booth S10 Emodial Srl was established in in Ferrara, Italy, and since that time has been operating in the field of haemodialysis providing a complete range of products for dressings and becoming one of the leading companies in the field.

Our products have been designed on the basis of the suggestions and co-operation offered by various Dialysis Centres of relevant Care Units, which felt the need for new products suitable for the medications and absorption of wound exudates to be used as an alternative to the traditional cotton or non-woven pads.

Our main products can be referable to the following typologies: -pads, plasters and bandages for fistula; -start-stop kits for haemodialysis, catheterism and peritoneal dialysis -devices for the disposal of used fistula needles; - exit-site and fistula dressings based on silver which helps to control the risk of infections of the vascular access.

The theme emerging here is analysed in more detail in the following section dealing with the influence of place and proximity on RTD.

Data from this study clearly shows that the pattern of patenting is much more concentrated than the distribution of the industry in general.

Santangelo explains this in terms of customary factors such as strong educational tradition e.

This first of all refers to the influence of place on RTD in central compared to peripheral regions. In drawing on a case study of high-technology spin-offs in the North East of England, Benneworth illustrates how traditions, in particular the strong sense of underdevelopment experienced in peripheries, might help in concentrating firms in such regions.

The author shows how high-technology firms in the electronics sector used the regional strengths of North East England and drew on universities in building up their companies, thus simultaneously fostering RTD in a peripheral region.

These results obviously question the mainstream hypothesis that peripherality is a disadvan- 15 tage for regional RTD, instead drawing attention to the influence of tradition and identity building.

In particular an increasing focus is placed on the importance of uncodified information. This is related to the process of ubiquitification Maskell and Malmberg , Maskell et al.

In such situations, spatial proximity and the local embeddedness of personal interactions play an important role in creating competitive advantages of both firms and regions e.

Regions still can generate comparative advantages based on tacit regional knowledge, which is embedded in regional innovation systems and milieus Sternberg Advantages that are developed through the interaction of individuals, firms, and institutions often supersede those based on specific territorial details.

Moreover, they conclude that proximity is not a solely spatial concept Mothe and Paquet a: 9 : Besides territorial dimensions, it also includes organisational, ideological, institutional and social dimensions.

Proximity alone does not suffice for interaction to emerge and take place, synergy is needed as well Malecki Unpacking the relation between embeddedness and RTD, we have to take into account mutually reinforcing relationships: Embeddedness has been stressed as one characteristic of successful regional milieus, with it being both antecedent for a regional innovative milieu to emerge and an output of an innovative milieu.

For example, recent research on virtual networks confirms that ICT usage, although facilitating networking of entrepreneurs, cannot substitute for personal face-to-face contacts Welter et al.

As explained above, this also needs spatial proximity and is embedded in the location decision of firms.

While the embeddedness concept frequently is understood to exclusively refer to lo- calised spatial processes, research on successful regions illustrates the importance of widening this concept to include a dimension of international embeddedness as well.

Moreover, such remigrants often contribute to a particular regional identity in their home-countries.

Granovetter used this concept to explain how economic actions are grounded in social connections and milieus.

High technology industries are to be found in regions with high levels of talent, although the direction of the causal relationships needs future research.

Policy Initiatives to foster Regional RTD There exists a multitude of different policies and concepts aimed at fostering the development of research and technology.

Approaches range from science and technology policies to innovation policies and promoting a supportive environment, often in the context of regional development, which refers, e.

In this chapter, we briefly sketch relevant policy approaches before asking which role policies could and should play for regional RTD.

These policy areas focus to a large extent on formal, scientific knowledge and technological innovations. This questions the effectiveness and wide-spread applicability of such concepts, especially for smaller firms, where research has shown the innovation process to be non-linear and open-ended e.

Moreover, science and technology policies often have been criticised for their explicit focus on sectors, industries or technologies, justified by most governments with market failures Lageman et al.

Evaluations indeed show mixed results. For example, in Germany programmes aimed at fostering high-technology start-ups have had a limited outreach, supporting around ten new companies per year, which is attributed to their narrow focus on high-technology fields instead of applying a broader view to innovative enterprises.

In summarising a number of studies on university technology transfer efforts, Phan and Siegel consider the following lessons to be taken from these studies: For technology transfer to be successful, the institutional, organisational and individual contexts need to be taken into account.

The authors moreover point to the fact that universities need to think strategically about this process, as their review demonstrates that university administrators appear to be more often concerned with protecting intellectual property rights and appropriating the rewards of technology transfer than being concerned about creating an appropriate context for technology transfer to take place.

As a more recent approach, designed to cope with the shortcomings of science and technology policy, innovation policy sets out to create enabling structures for research and development, looking beyond the single firm for other means of how to best support RTD.

This approach was developed during the s in Western Europe, mainly at national and EU level. In the context of globalisation and increasing international competition, its aim is to strengthen the innovation capability and competitiveness of European industries.

Although a broadly defined innovation policy is a relatively new policy area, it basically goes back to older concepts of industrial policy aiming at raising the competitiveness of national industries.

Nowadays, a main objective of innovation policy is to foster and speed-up learning and innovation processes within firms as well as between firms and their environment Nauwelaers et al.

With this, innovation policy has wider objectives than those of science policy and technology policy, but incorporates elements of both policy areas.

This philosophy also is the basis for the more recent concept of territorial innovation systems, which emphasizes the role that regional and national environments play in influencing RTD and innovation in firms.

One focus of policy attention in this regard has been on regional clusters of innovative enterprises and the role of the external environment in fostering innovation Lawson For example, regional clusters of innovative firms could result from attempts to reduce the uncertainty of any innovation process through networking where spatial proximity is one important requirement for trust between companies to develop.

They are a means to facilitate access to information and knowledge transfer, which would involve being near to universities and scientific research institutions.

More recently, in connection with the recent trend on creativity and its relation to regional RTD, one study started arguing for regional RTD policies to be oriented more towards the different types of knowledge in innovative industries Hogni Kalso, Vang and Asheim In such cases, development activities are more important compared to research actions; knowledge often is created based on experience, learning by doing and incrementally improving existing routines.

Policy-makers can promote regional development best through upgrading existing skills within the region. This refers to industries which are heavily dependent on scientific knowledge such as biotechnology, information technology and others.

Here, research activities are more important compared to development. The question remains whether and in which ways regional agglomerations and regional RTD can be supported by policy-makers.

Many are sceptical about the potential of government policies in such a context Malecki , pointing out that government policies rarely can substitute for a missing technical culture and lacking networks of firms.

The authors use the software agglomeration in Dublin and the IT-sector in Tampere as examples to demonstrate how the agglomeration process is contingent on local resources and processes.

In this regard, Hospers outlines three dangers of policies explicitly geared towards developing high-tech clusters. Firstly, the question arises of whether regional governments are capable of assessing the future economic potential of particular regional agglomerations, because any misjudgement could result in government failures.

Thirdly, in supporting high-tech agglomerations local governments might be prone to ignore whether preconditions for such clusters are present in the region in question.

Territorial Innovation Models In this chapter, we look at territorial innovation models, i. In our understanding, regional or national innovation systems are an overarching concept, including the different ideas developed around industrial districts, clusters, innovative milieus and technopoles, in particular focusing on those elements and processes as introduced in chapter 2, namely knowledge and learning, networks and key actors, and proximity and embeddedness.

Each industrial district specialises on a particular area and is characterised by concentrations of small businesses. Furthermore, it is characterised by a high level of interfirm cooperation, a high division of labour, relations of trust and reciprocity, but also competition between actors Lorenz , Dei Ottati In economic terms, the concentration of small firms with a similar specialisation and skills is one of the major success factors producing positive externalities such as economies of scale and scope.

Proponents of the industrial district model often tend to see the concept through rose-tinted lenses, overlooking critical factors.

Only few studies explicitly name the dark sides of the particular mixture of economic and social factors which constitute an industrial district e.

In this regard, the concept of localised production systems differentiate itself from the model of diffuse industrialisation underlying the industrial district model by including all forms of regulation and by giving up the focus on small firms.

Cainelli and Zoboli The district model also is popular in analysing territorial agglomerations in developing and emerging market economies, for example in the context of India Das , or Mexico compared to Italy Rabelotti , generally for South Eastern countries and Latin America Schmitz Research frequently has studied the emergence of industrial districts and localised production systems in an attempt to identify possibilities to transfer these models to other regions and countries.

As the development of industrial districts is grounded in place and time, with industry- and location-specific factors influencing the emergence of territorial agglomerations, Pyke and Sengenberger conclude that it is less the systems as such which can be transferred but more single elements which constitute the industrial district model.

In the late s, Piore and Sabel considered the flexible specialisation to be observed in industrial districts as the emerging mode of regulation, which was going to replace Fordism, and which could be the basis for the renewal of regional economies.

For example, this happened in Prato where the traditional textile industry was able to survive and to adapt to changing global circumstances Dei Ottati Supporters of the industrial district model thus suggested that the territorial agglomeration of an industrial district is said to facilitate innovation, thus emphasising the innovative capacities of small firms belonging to the same industry and local space.

Not surprisingly, proponents of the milieu-concept consider the industrial district as a special case of a milieu, due to its socio-cultural embeddedness, but with a low learn- 25 ing dynamic relative to innovative milieus Maillat , which in turn restricts its RTD and innovation capacity.

While this perspective would discard any innovation potential of industrial districts or localised production systems, Bianchi argues for a more balanced view.

Clusters are described as regional concentrations of enterprises across different sizes and their support infrastructure; this could be in one industry and along the value chain vertical cluster or horizontally with enterprises competing in the same sector.

Examples include universities, which produce specialised knowledge and trained personnel, industry associations offering specialised services or financing institutions such as venture capital fonds and business angels.

While this need not be negative in itself, it might hamper the full innovative potential of smaller firms to be realised in such cases where they have to follow the technological pace set by the hub firm.

Power relations are more balanced; competitive strengths of these clusters are external economies of scope and scale with industrial districts being one sub-category of this cluster form.

Another common model of spin-off clusters results from smaller firms being span out from larger companies. Regarding RTD, these clusters tend to be linked by a common technology rather by commercial interactions; and firms share a need for a uniquely skilled labour force, regardless of their business structure.

Each cluster might take a variety of generic structural forms, based on either power asymmetries, commercial relationships or interactions with non-commercial actors such as municipalities or universities; and none of these forms are mutually exclusive.

Which 27 factors render a cluster a successful territorial innovation model? In generalising the results of cluster research, Bathelt , cf.

The horizontal dimension covers issues of competition and variation, which the author considers crucial in understanding the cluster phenomenon.

In general, firms competing in the same sectors might have few incentives to cooperate, but spatial proximity allows them to closely watch competitors in order to increase their own competitiveness through product differentiation, process optimizing and decreases in costs.

The vertical cluster dimension captures traded interdependencies, which renders firms with complementary products and services more competitive through cooperation, and of untraded interdependencies Storper such as the effects of embeddedness and localised learning.

Similar to industrial districts and innovative milieus, it is the social fabric of a region which plays a particular important role in explaining economic regional development and success.

Cluster researchers assume a mutual relationship between institutions and cluster structure, where regional specialisation and agglomeration are fostered by a territorially bounded system of norms, values, codes of conducts.

The external dimension refers to the need for clusters to be integrated into external markets and technology systems in order to realise the growth potential of regional agglomerations.

This indicates an important mechanism for RTD and innovation in a regional context, namely drawing on technological resources externally to a region, but it also hints at a possible dilemma: Trade-offs might occur between the need for embeddedness, which could lead to lock-ins, and the requirement of openness.

Clusters 18 Interestingly, the industrial district literature also recognises co-evolving processes in this regard, with such systems of norms and local values being one of the success factors for districts, but also districts contributing to its development.

Finally, Bathelt mentions the relational power dimension as important element of clusters, reflecting the potential of a cluster to join its actors in mutual beneficial activities.

However, again there is a trade-off involved, one between power asymmetries and blind confidence, with the latter picking up a recent discussion in trust-related research, indicating that trust-based relations have a dark side, which most research has tended to overlook Welter and Smallbone With regard to RTD, blind confidence might contribute to lock firms in inefficient technological trajectories and increasing the risk of collective failure at cluster level Bathelt This has consequences on cluster development, as technological trajectories within clusters influence the development of the cluster, regardless of market chances and opportunities Menzel and Fornahl In taking the trade-off argument further, this could pose a problem insofar, as the main problem for regional development could become one of lack of diversity in technologies, thus further reinforcing existing lock-ins and resulting in a lack of creativity needed to foster cluster development.

Examples are the development of the Ruhr Area in Germany, which became locked in to technologically inefficient and heavily subsidised steel and coal industries since the early s, all of which prevented an effective structural change Grabher ; or Route in the Boston Area Bathelt , Saxenian This definition once more demonstrates the difficulties involved in distinguishing between different territorial innovation models, as criticised by several authors for an overview cf.

Moulaert and Sekia We nevertheless briefly describe the concept of technopoles as this is often applied to describe successful model regions in RTD and high-tech development.

The technopole concept is a popular policy model in France. Technopoles are municipalities smaller than metropolises where a distinct technology focus can be identified; concentrating on fostering high-tech sectors.

The explanation for spatial concen- 29 tration and success result either from locational strategies of high-tech firms, which themselves follow technological trajectories, or they are a result of a top-down regional development strategy defining technological trajectories Colletis-Wahl and Pecqueur , as for example in the case of Montpellier.

In reality, most technopoles appear to follow a mixed strategy where initial government programmes might trigger locational strategies of firms or, more rarely, an initial agglomeration of firms might trigger additional government support.

A distinctive element of the technopole concept, with consequences for our understanding of RTD, is that it considers technological and territorial strategies in parallel.

Therefore, technopoles often have been characterised as places where learning occurs without interaction, while in industrial districts there is an emphasis on interaction, but learning is neglected Oinas and Malecki Consequently, policy support is focused on instruments such as science and technology commercialisation programmes, venture capital initiatives, or consulting in intellectual property rights and internationalisation.

With regard to regional RTD, the technopole concept might contribute valuable lessons about the effectiveness and appropriateness of different policy measures, although it neglects the embeddedness of RTD processes within the region.

This differs for the concept of the innovative milieu. More and more research studies have emphasised the local and regional embeddedness of RTD and innovation, indicating trust, tacit regional knowledge, learning processes and informal interactions as important elements for regional technology-driven development.

For example, a study on Munich as a high technology region in Germany indicated that this local environment is characterised by extensive inter- and intraregional linkages as well as 30 by comprehensive co-operation between large and small firms Sternberg and Tamasy While this is similar to both concepts presented in previous sections, in contrast to models of industrial districts and localised production systems, the concept of the innovative milieu emphasizes a non-linear innovation process and brings learning to the forefront of regional RTD.

The milieu is seen as an incubator for innovations and the creativity needed to renew and develop regions.

There are especially two processes which need to be in place for an innovative milieu, namely learning and interaction Maillat , with interactions triggering and producing collective learning processes.

Fromhold-Eisebith considers three elements as essential for a milieu or in particular a creative milieu to develop: a dense regional fabric of interpersonal relationships for information exchange, a highly social and informal character of these linkages inducing learning processes and innovations and a common image and sense of belonging to this particular region or this particular group of actors.

These linkages have to be both information-intensive and based on trust; they are built to a large extent by informal and personal relationships and face-to-face contacts FromholdEisebith Such interventions set off local synergies, which in turn foster hightech production and innovation within the region.

Issues emerging from the literature on milieus, with particular relevance for regional RTD, are the following: Most studies stress the link between spatial proximity and crea- 31 tivity as requirements for regional development, while simultaneously emphasizing that local embeddedness needs to be supported by good external linkages, in order to foster new input and know-how flows into the region.

Audretsch , cited in DeMartino et al. This also implies that regional actors need to have high cognitive and functional competencies in their respective areas in order to successfully recognise future trends and critical situations.

Triggers fostering the emergence of regional clusters are manifold. To summarize the discussion set out in this chapter and linking it back to chapter 2, territorial innovation models indicate some general requirements for regional RTD to occur, although the details obviously differ across concepts.

These include the ways in which relationships between public and private actors develop, the role for private and public actors with particular emphasis on the importance of leadership, thus highlighting the role of social processes which have to complement technological leadership, all of which assist processes of localised learning needed to set off innovation processes.

In this understanding, regional innovation systems consist of a set of non-written, tacit rules based on trust, mutual exchange and reliability Cooke ; in short: they comprise of the overall governance of regional agglomerations Moulaert and Sekia Some Examples from Around the World This chapter presents examples of good practice regions throughout Europe and beyond.

We start in section 4. This is followed by snapshots of our selected good practice regions, synthesizing results both from literature and expert interviews for a list of interviewed experts see appendix I.

Criteria for identifying Good Practice Regions Table 1 presents a matrix developed on the synthesis of literature in chapter 2 and 3 to identify possible good practice regions.

With this classification, we attempt to capture the diversity of factors influencing RTD in a regional context as well as the dynamics to be observed across different territorial models.

Here, we draw on the sectoral variant of the product-life-cycle theory which states that young industries, i.

Consequently, regional development might benefit from a sectoral structure where younger industries dominate. With this classification, we attempt to capture the role of the sectoral context.

This classification takes up an argument developed by Audretsch and Feldman , namely that there exists a link between life cycles of industries and clusters of firms.

In early stages of the industry life cycle, tacit knowledge plays 33 an important role for firm development, and spatial clustering allows firms to realise and draw on knowledge spillovers.

With this classification, we aim at capturing the regional RTD context. Industrial District II. Cluster III.

Innovative Milieus IV. Technopoles 1. Age of industry 1. Tuttlingen, Jena IV. Montpellier, Sophia Antopolis 2. Sheffield III.

Tuttlingen II. Montpellier, Sophia Antopolis Source: Authors. We aimed at including a variety of regions from around the world, albeit with a particular focus on Europe.

Moreover, we have not been able to identify much relevant literature dealing with regional innovation models in a post transition context.

This is not surprising, as the concepts discussed before have originated from academic discourses which change over time.

Moreover, most concepts are primarily based on empirical observations and studies. Oresund also has been included because of the cross-border nature of its cluster.

The region North Jutland is still in the process of developing local clusters. Good Practice Regions 4. Figure 1. It is the 3rd-largest city in India.

The metropolitan area has a population of 6. It was chosen for further analysis because it is a region from a developing country, a latecomer and a quick starter regarding regional development, all of which might be interesting for regions in newly emerg- 35 ing market economies, but also for old-industrialised regions searching for new ways of overcoming structural problems.

The enterprise structure consists of many branches of MNCs e. Texas Instruments, Infosys Technologies Ltd. In total, Bangalore is the most important centre of civil and military aircraft and aerospace industry and IT in India.

Responsible for the success are, amongst others, some general conditions and resources available in Bangalore. At first, Bangalore has a geographical position which is not only strategically important distance to Pakistan but also beneficial for worldwide economic connections e.

The natural factors such as climate and its reputation as a garden city are of advantage when it comes to life quality. Concerning human resources Bangalore and India as a whole has comparative low labour costs, 36 of course.

Not only price for labour is an advantage but also the quality of the workforce: The Indians are seen as ambitious and capable people who are international mobile with high qualifications.

Many local universities and research centres foster knowledge spillovers into industry and close research-industry cooperation.

It was the first to establish a subsidiary with a satellite link in Not to forget the colonial British heritage that, for example, influenced legal norms, constitution, education system and media and provides stability and reliable circumstances for foreign enterprises even nowadays.

Additionally, the regional identity plays an important role. A large number of highlyqualified Indians went abroad and worked and were trained in the USA, esp.

Many of them remigrated to Bangalore to manage local branches of MNCs or create their own businesses. Moreover, some key persons fostered the regional development: The political leaders of the Indian state Karnataka in which Bangalore is situated played a pivotal role in the development of IT and business process outsourcing.

While the first helped to settle technology orientated public enterprises in Bangalore, the latter made the settlement of foreign MNCs possible.

The public support worked well for several reasons: For instance, a lot of investments were made in infrastructure e. In Bangalore subsidies were given on an enterprise level e.

Furthermore, the government supported close relations for knowledge transfer between various actors. Moreover, the remigration of high qualified Indian people seems to be an interesting strategy for regions that suffer from inhabitants moving to other cities.

Boston is the biggest city in New England, the main city of Massachusetts cf. Figure 2. Route is no newcomer to prosperity or industrial action Herbig and Golden Between and , new manufacturing jobs were created, mostly in high-technology industries, as a result the unemployment rate in Boston was almost negligible by The crisis could arise because of lock-in effects - the industries were unable to give up old structures and replacing them by new ones.

The enterprises were mainly very focused and centralised, vertically high integrated systems locked into an inefficient technological trajectory Bathelt Figure 2: Map of the USA But Boston was able to change by, amongst others, shifting from declining to growing sectors, technological diversification and individual restructuring Bathelt , Best This change makes Boston an interesting example for our study, in particular for old industry regions wanting to foster regional structural change.

Today for example, Boston is one of the leading locations for biotechnology in the world pharmaceutical and medical applications showing many linkages to international locations Haeussler ; Porter et al.

In this context, Bathelt et al. From this example one can see how the enterprises changed while responding to the market challenges.

Again, there are many different reasons why Boston could overcome the crisis and regain its strength. In the first place, its resources in terms of the excellent educational 39 infrastructure with first-class universities e.

Boston is one of the most educated areas in the USA Porter et al. Boston is a region strongly linked to knowledge and science.

Furthermore, Boston profited from external effects: The technological development worldwide increasing importance of sectors like biotechnology, internet services etc.

Contrary to regions such as North Jutland or Bremen, policy and governance is of no greater importance for regional development. Individual entrepreneurs fostered the development by founding new companies and introducing new technologies and products Rosegrant and Lampe There is obviously no single dominant key person or organisation in Boston responsible for the success or better to say the returning success , but the diversity of organisations in itself encourages experimentation and flexibility Porter et al.

The collapse of the microcomputer market in the beginning of the s was not the only crisis situations Boston came across in its history.

For example, after World War II they had to face the decline of the textile industry; and after Vietnam War the decline of the public spending for armaments meant a severe challenge for the local industries as well.

These market or structural changes can be seen as main external triggers for change and the search for and the acceptation of new market opportunities and the change of technological focus lately, emergence of biotechnology and internet services.

Bremen is a city as well as a federal state in Northern Germany situated within the larger federal state Lower Saxony. The free hanseatic city is located along the river Weser about kilometres southwest of Hamburg see Figure 3.

The city Bremen is one of two towns belonging to the federal state of Bremen the other being Bremerhaven and one of eleven European metropolitan regions in Germany.

There are , inhabitants in the city and , in the federal state. Figure 3: Map of Germany and its federal states Lower Saxony and Bremen 41 In the s and s Bremen was affected by a distinctive structural change following the downfall of the shipbuilding and steel industries Koschatzky and Stahlecker Therefore, Bremen is an interesting case study because it went through a structural change from a typical harbour and shipbuilding location relying on heavy industries to a more future orientated business location.

One of the main industry sectors is the automotive industry; here Bremen hosts the 2nd largest DaimlerChrysler plant with ca.

Furthermore, Bremen is one of the leading centres of the German aerospace and aeronautics industry. If one wants to assess the success of Bremen in terms of regional development and RTD, there arises an ambivalent picture.

Also, just to mention another example, the ability of the local university to attract research funds is extraordinary compared to other universities.

But on the other hand the unemployment rate ranks clearly above the German average, which is still pointing at structural deficits and depicting a different image of Bremen.

The fact that the knowledge intensive business service KIBS sector, seen by many as the main driver of technical change and economic progress, is still comparably less developed and dynamic in Bremen Koch and Stahlecker seems to underline that the restructuring there has not finished yet.

Concerning science, there are several higher education institutes with about 35, students. The University of Bremen is the largest amongst them educating 22, students.

Furthermore, there are renowned nonuniversity based research institutes like a Max-Planck-Institute or a Fraunhofer Institute.

These scientific establishments are the basis for an excellent workforce potential. A main issue in Bremen contributing to the emergence of an innovative milieu are policies and governance.

A lot of the money came out of external sources like EU funding or the so called federal financial compensation mechanism22 within Germany.

In Bremen, private and public expenditures are nearly identical while in Germany expenses from public sources amount only to one third.

With this framework Bremen is putting a main emphasis on developing new innovation fields like T. Overall, the institutional arrangements are characterised by a limited amount of intermediary actors, few redundancies and clear competencies Koch and Stahlecker Figure 4.

There are , inhabitants in the city and , in the agglomeration Lasch It is also of interest because it has no historical industrial background - Languedoc-Roussillon is the least industrialized region in France.

Therefore, the technopole concept clearly focuses on the service sector. Since 34, jobs have been created. Today, ca. Moreover, Montpellier is ranked the 3rd largest city in terms of congress hosting and France's third leading urban area not including Paris for strategic jobs i.

Finally, not to forget: Montpellier is debt-free. This is because Montpellier has been a university city since the 13th century with 3 universities and several technical and graduate colleges.

Furthermore, Montpellier has no restructuring burdens because of the lacking industrial background and a weaker influence of trade unions compared to traditional industry regions.

There are some external factors that triggered the development from an agricultural to a scientific region. This changed also the electoral behavior from right to left Lasch The latter enabled the change of the local government.

They initiated the technopole concept accompanied by a creative urban planning that aimed at a continuous enhancement of the quality of life and attractiveness of the city presence of urban and environmental amenities.

That included early buying and compulsory purchase of properties which enabled spatial expansion. The selection criteria for the strategic sectors to be followed were existing capacities e.

The technopole concept is supported by a special infrastructure, e. Since , more than enterprises have been accompanied by the CEEI within the Montpellier agglomeration with an above- national average probability of surviving.

A major strength of Montpellier is its communication and outreach strategy. Image campaigns successfully stress the combination of life quality, business infrastructure and environment as key arguments for investing and living in Montpellier.

This is ac- 46 companied by special support services for firms planning to localise in Montpellier Lasch Another success factor for the economic development is the regional identity, which can be characterised by a traditional sense of rivalry with the capital Paris and a strong sense of regional culture.

This helps to concentrate on local needs and local economic development Hansen In the case of Montpellier the focus on the tertiary sector and the dynamic, small-structured economy encourage a high unemployment rate because of the absence of low wage jobs and SMEs only providing very few additional jobs.

In addition, the massive expansion of the city evoked heavy traffic, a lot of construction sites, high prices for real estate and high cost of living in general.

Already since the settling policy aimed at future orientated enterprises Schmude accompanied by a strategic urban development, a gradual expansion based on an existing concept.

Furthermore, Montpellier offers a successful urban marketing strategy picturing the city as a future orientated economic metropolis.

Figure 5. The county seat is Aalborg, the 4th largest city of Denmark. North Jutland consists of 27 municipalities, its area size mounts up to more than 6, square kilometres with approx.

It is a comparatively new and artificial administrative region Dalborg and Halkier The evaluation reports state that the overall effects of these programmes were positive for the region Pedersen and Dalum North Jutland is traditionally characterized as a peripheral region with an unemployment rate among the highest in Denmark.

The economy is dominated by SMEs with a heterogeneous economic structure. There is still a fairly large share of low-tech industries such as primary industries, agriculture and fishery while the service sector is relatively small.

In North Jutland, the educational level is lower than the average of whole Denmark, although, Aalborg University is home to 12, students and employs more than 1, people Stoerring and Christensen ; Pedersen and Dalum During the s and s the region went through a structural change with employment moving from traditional sectors to service and high-tech sectors like mechanical engineering and electronics Pedersen and Dalum In this regard, two clusters are of interest in North Jutland.

Radiocommunications technology is the common knowledge base for the cluster. The cluster is focused on production and development of mobile communications equipment, cordless systems, modem and fax equipment for wire and wireless systems as well as various equipments for maritime communications and navigation Dalum et al.

This is an active, mainly policy-driven cluster initiative that started in , in an attempt to repeat the success of the ICT cluster Stoerring Now, what made the transistion from a agricultural periphery to an at least emerging technology region happen?

Aalborg University is of great advantage for North Jutland. Established in , today it has 13, students and 1, employees Pedersen and Dalum It has a priority area in ICT sector, but has also build up substantial activities within life sciences in the last years.

The university delivering engineers and basic research is seen as a core asset of the region Stoerring and Dalum The strong university research capacity is combined with a long tradition and specific character of the cooperation between university and industry.

All this helped in fostering cluster development, and it illustrates as a particular strength of the regional development in North Jutland, that the region build on its core assets, namely ICT NorCOM and the emerging life sciences at university for Biomedico.

The regional culture resp. Additionally, building up and maintaining social networks have a long tradition in the region Stoerring and Christensen Moreover, a widespread awareness of the importance of further developing the technological system can be found Dalum et al.

Concerning policies and governance as success factors for regional development the North Jutland example also gives some indication.

Here, a coherent policy framework supports the economic development. For instance, over 40 organisations are involved in economic development activities and business support Damborg and Halkier In terms of regional RTD, the cluster initiatives are an interesting element of regional development.

The answer to this cannot be given at the moment as Biomedico is still a very young emerging cluster. Figure 6. The Oresund consists of seven counties and municipalities and the area size amounts to approx.

The region includes the big cities Copenhagen in Denmark and Malmo in Sweden. Figure 6: Map of the Oresund Overall, the region has 3.

It is the most densely populated agglomeration in Scandinavia Hospers The infrastructure allows access to the region by air Copenhagen international airport and sea ports in CopenhagenMalmo, Trelleborg and Helsingborg.

Since July the Danish and the Swedish sides of the region are connected by the Oresund Bridge, the largest infrastructure project since the Channel Tunnel.

We have chosen Oresund as a region worth looking at because it is a cross-border region Euregion , thus allowing us to look at how regional development progresses in a cross-border situation, which factors are favourable, which factors might hinder it.

This may be of particular value for smaller countries such as Latvia where cross-border regional development is of particular importance.

Oresund is a hub for high-tech companies and research organisations. The sectors which are especially strong are pharmaceuticals and biotechnology, ITC, food, envi- 50 ronment, logistics and design.

It is one of the world's leading biotech clusters containing a high concentration of pharmaceutical companies. Since the region is jointly branded as 'Medicon Valley' to reflect the region's life science strongholds Medicon Valley In the region, more than , companies, mostly SMEs, can be counted.

It is the most important investment region in Scandinavia and ranked number three in Europe when it comes to the number of investment projects Oresund Region Strong basic academic research and a long tradition for clinical research as well as a good cooperation climate between research and economy help fostering knowledge spillovers Boston Consulting Group The engagement of private actors e.

The latter, a joint non-profit-making organisation for the bio-medical firms in the Oresund 51 area, acts as an intermediate between universities, enterprises, and authorities aiming for promoting the medical sector Sornn-Friese and Sorensen Although the Oresund region follows a clear-cut branding strategy, the region building has not yet finished as well, which is shown for example in the fact, that even the definition of the region has not yet been accomplished OECD : Cross border differences in laws and institutions e.

In this regard, the Oresund region has not yet fulfilled the expectations in terms of cross-border linkage formation Sornn-Friese and Sorensen Creating a regional identity seems to be the biggest challenge for the Oresund region for the years to come.

Moreover, the region is home to the largest concentration of highly educated people in Northern Europe, a fact which helps in explaining its success in developing a cross border cluster.

Oxfordshire: From Rural Area to High-tech Economy The county Oxfordshire, consisting of five districts, is located in the south east of England to the west of London cf.

Figure 7 Oxfordshire covers an area of 1, square miles with a population of , whereof approx. It is the most rural county in the South East region with over half the people in the county living in settlements of less than 10, people.

Therefore, it has the lowest population density in the South East region Oxfordshire County Council Today, the key industries include cryogenics, instrumentation and motorsport Lawton Smith et al.

In the latter, Oxfordshire claims world leadership as it is home to two Formula 1 teams, Williams and Renault. Furthermore, Oxfordshire has the largest concentration of printing and publishing companies in the UK outside London Oxfordshire County Council Figure 7: Map of the UK and the South East region Of great interest for our analysis is the high-tech sector in which Oxfordshire showed extraordinary growth rates over the past years.

In general, the technology-based sectors e. Especially, the biotech sector forms a small but significant part of the high-tech economy in Oxfordshire Lawton Smith The high-tech orientation shows itself also in the employment structure: Oxfordshire has a comparably very high proportion of employment 4.

The resident workforce is amongst the most highly qualified in the country. Oxfordshire is home to four universities: Amongst them, the most famous is Oxford University, dating back to 53 the 13th century and hosting 17, students.

The only 10 years old Oxford Brookes University is home to 18, students. All guarantee a constant flow of high qualified people Oxfordshire County Council , The scientific scene in Oxfordshire is amended by a number of research institutes, national laboratories, hospitals and medical research units Lawton Smith et al.

These academic institutes are not only valuable as education institutes and providers for high qualified employees but also as research establishments with linkages to local industries e.

Concerning the latter, since the s and s the regional culture esp. Concerning key actors Lawton Smith et al.

In the case of Oxfordshire amongst these people are entrepreneurs, academics and members of public institutions. Overall, this underlines the importance of efficient networking and the connection to science as basic elements of successful RTD.

Although politicians are amongst the key actors policies and governance are not of the same importance for regional development as in other regions.

For example, the Trust has an innovation centre with incubator units and runs business seminars Lawton Smith et al. Overall, Oxfordshire is a good example for a rural region building its economic development on existing strengths and enlarging them according to the environmental changes.

Moreover, it illustrates the role universities could play in fostering regional RTD. It consists of 7 communes and its capital is the city of Prato cf.

Figure 8. Overall, there are approx. Prato can look back on a long history in textile industries already starting in the Middle Ages.

Then, it had to face a phase of stagnation and restructuring 23 To limit the region analysed to the province of Prato is actually not sufficient: The textile area is quite larger than the province of Prato as there are also municipalities in the provinces of Pistoia and Florence that can be added in.

But the textile industry was able to survive and to adapt to changing global circumstances Dei Ottati Today, Prato is home to ca. Prato produces a wide range of products made of different fibres and for diverse final uses, produced by various manufacturing processes and for heterogeneous market segments.

The concentration of small firms with a similar specialisation and skills is seen as one of the major success factors producing positive externalities such as economies of scale and scope.

For instance, as a reaction to the downturn phase in the s, the business models changed: While in the past the enterprises in Prato had a high degree of productive self-sufficiency, nowadays some intermediate production is being subcontracted to or bought from outside the district, often from countries with a lower level of labour costs.

Furthermore, the firms reacted to the crisis by upgrading and differentiating their textile products. Additionally, while the employment in the industry sector decreased an expansion of the service sector occurred Dei Ottati b, The latter refers to a remarkable birth and fast growth of firms specialised in producer services due to, for example, the outsourcing of activities before and after the production process or the emergence of new needs for, e.

As in every industrial district, the enterprise structure in Prato is characterised by an extensive division of labour.

This means the enterprises are highly dependent on one another to be able to carry out their own tasks.

Typically, the added value is vertically constructed and organised by subcontracting. While the former concentrate on product innovations, the latter often develop process innovations Dei Ottati , ; Piscitello and Sgobbi Initially, these relationships are characterised by cautiousness, while later high stability often relations persist over many years , social proximity and trustworthiness dominates Dei Ottati , It is located in the region Schwarzwald-Baar-Heuberg and situated at the 57 river Donau cf.

Figure 9. There are about , inhabitants in the district and 40, in the city Tuttlingen. Tuttlingen was first mentioned in the year A.

Figure 9: Map of Germany and the federal state Baden-Wurttemberg Tuttlingen is the location of a traditional cluster specialised in the surgical instrument industry with two distinct product sub-sectors: traditional surgical instruments and new products such as endoscopes, surgical apparatus and implants.

There are approx. The two biggest enterprises within the cluster offer nearly half of all jobs, only 42 enterprises employ more than 20 employees, and more than enterprises do not have any employees at all.

Because of the high specialisation and concentration there is also high competition within the cluster Nadvi and Halder ; Halder Therefore, the firms are largely independent of the national framework conditions and national demand but, of course, they do strongly depend on international framework conditions like the US dollar exchange rates and international demand Binder and Sautter 58 Tuttlingen keeps global linkages to e.

The firms are technology leaders in their special sector worldwide. The economic success can be measured within the population as well: For instance, since the population has increased by Firstly, there are some general conditions resp.

Tuttlingen has a highly skilled workforce with a special, tacit knowledge and specific mechanical skills that have been built up for many years.

This enables the firms to produce high product quality and makes them technology leaders in their specific field. A high ability of knowledge absorption is indeed one of the success factors of Tuttlingen.

Therefore, the regions aims for fostering cluster orientated education further. Where radical technological innovation is limited, the rapid assimilation of incremental innovation is the key to competitiveness for producers.

The regional culture and identity is another point worth looking at. On the contrary, strong trust in personal networks is an important point in Tuttlingen.

This occupation of niches led to a wide-spread variety of products together with the ability not only to supply special and customized products but also to satisfy even smaller demand volumes.

This in itself is a success factor for the cluster again. Furthermore, the regional endeavours to foster cluster specific education and knowledge could be a good example for other regions trying to improve their performance in special sectors.

In this chapter, we conclude by introducing a multidimensional stylized matrix of good practice elements within a region, which is supposed to serve as one basis for the development of a generic and adaptive model 5.

We end by pointing out major challenges in fostering regional RTD 5. The following matrix cf. Table 4 aims at capturing i input factors required for RTD, ii processes, iii outcomes, and iv possible critical points arising throughout regional RTD processes.

In this way, we attempt to capture elements of what makes regions successful in growing and developing rather than a whole strategy for creating good practices within regional RTD.

The ideas for this matrix result from our review of literature and theoretical concepts, the review of good practice regions and expert interviews as well as from the discussions during the first international project workshop end of June in Deventer, Netherlands.

Each group of factors results in factor-specific outcomes, and factorspecific processes are needed to influence the level and existence of regional RTD.

We also indicate critical points possibly hindering the influence of these factors on RTD. We recognise overlaps, but also a need to conceptually distinguish between the three main categories of factors and processes influencing RTD.

We also recognise a need to simultaneously focus on factors and processes as it is the interplay between both that can foster RTD.

RTD is facilitated by general conditions and resources. This includes the endogenous resource base within a region, its natural environment determining the quality of life within 62 a region, its industry base and market structures.

Regarding the institutional infrastructure, systemic factors refer to the overall network infrastructure required for RTD within a region, including political institutions on macro level, business intermediaries on meso level and the general business support infrastructure on micro firm level.

Individually, the institutional infrastructure needs to be complemented by key actors such as high communicators on macro level political level , network promoters on the meso and star scientists on micro level.

Regional RTD obviously needs individuals with high commitment and a vision for their region.

This is also reflected in the soft factors needed for the institutional RTD infrastructure to evolve, such as the openness of a region, the open minds and curiosity of actors, all of which are reflected in a high level of cooperation between different actors and good networking skills.

Processes needed for improving or building such a RTD institutional infrastructure refer to good governance within and amongst networks on different levels as well as the creation of trust-based relationships amongst different institutions and actors.

People also matter with regard to regional knowledge, knowledge transfer and regional learning. Individually, knowledge might be attracted to a region 63 by policies aimed at attracting highly skilled labour.

This could include remigration policies as in the case of Bangalore, where the Indian government fostered the remigration of those Indians who had previously worked in the Silicon Valley.

This also could refer to policies geared at retaining skilled graduates within a region or at educating them as in the example of Tuttlingen, where the business school offers a specialised MBA programme tailor-made for the surgical instrument cluster.

All this helps foster learning processes within the region. Challenges in Fostering Regional RTD The matrix presented above illustrates a variety of elements and processes on different levels which can foster regional RTD, and consequently lead to more innovative and entrepreneurial regions.

However, our analysis so far also confirms that it is the interplay of various factors with region-specific resource endowments which will foster regional development.

We need a process-oriented view on RTD. For example, a sole focus on building up stronger local or regional linkages will guarantee nothing.

Malmberg , p. It is in this context, that lock-in effects and negative path-dependencies could hamper regional development even in cases which one might consider good practice examples.

Lock-in effects can have several reasons. Regarding socio-economic influences on regional RTD, lock-in effects are the dark side of embeddedness, arising from networking and closed networks, as was illustrated vividly by Grabher for the Ruhr Region in Germany.

The reasons for this phenomenon are manifold: embedded ties could be used increasingly as control mechanisms instead of reflecting trust-based relationships; exclusive and closed networks lead to information isolation, there is an increasing trade-off between stable links and more profitable relations outside the network, the predisposition to render firms in networks highly dependent on each other, the potential problem of reciprocal ties that stronger firms might have to back up weaker firms.

Negative path dependencies27 also occur with regard to technological development. Path dependency has its advantages, but it could also contribute to technological lock-in effects as happened in the case of Route Bathelt Technological lock-ins at firm level can usually be explained by switching costs, costs of not learning as fast as competitors, and the genuine uncertainty about the actual benefits of switching Arthur , Sornn-Friese and Sorensen High costs of switching encourage individuals to recur to a familiar course of action, which as a rule reflect their previous experiences and tacit knowledge.

This in turn tends to reinforce trusted and known codes of conduct, resulting at the individual level in an escalating commitment to viable, but not necessarily the best courses of actions Whyte This in turn influences the possibility of a cluster to 26 Entropy is a concept from natural science.

In social science it is used to explain what happens when systems are closed and do not allow for any new input from outside. Are these observable relationships portents of the future that might bring very different outcomes?

This first of all concerns the pertinent question of how far policy is able to influence regional development paths, which in turn influences the role policies should and could play.

These cases, he suggests, have fairly well documented uniqueness and it is questionable whether these unique development paths can be followed by others.

There are two questions which need to be solved in this regard. Arthur This could be extended to spatial developments where path-dependent behaviour is not negative as such: Arthur presented a model of spatial path dependency, illustrating cluster tendencies as the probability function of already existing firms in a given location.

Selfreinforcement mechanisms interplay of institutions and patterns of choice add to this. Similarly, Bremen presents a case of regional RTD heavily supported by the local government, thus questioning its longer term sustainability.

The question remaining open here is one of how best to support regional RTD and the role policy can play in fostering it.

Secondly, there is an issue related to whether good practices can be transferred and replicated in other regional contexts. The conceptual and empirical evidence presented in this report points out that it is less strategies and concepts we can transfer from one region to another but rather elements and processes which need to be taken into account, and which might have some scope for replication.

In summing up, this indicates that regions should draw on their existing core competencies and regional advantages and using those to make a difference in RTD.

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Tripepi, C. Vifor Pharma, Glattbrugg, Switzerland. Hamburg1 has experienced at hemodialysis field. Small Business Economics 8, D11B Hemo Sapiens Sioulis,1 Ioannis M. More and more research studies have emphasised the local and regional embeddedness of RTD and innovation, indicating trust, tacit regional knowledge, learning processes and informal interactions as important elements for regional technology-driven https://johannelundsforsamling.se/online-filme-schauen-stream/crazy-ex-girlfriend-stream.php. Collinson, See more. Schmude eds. Strife entrant chaired frontage. Ihre Https://johannelundsforsamling.se/online-filme-schauen-stream/freaks-of-nature-2019.php. Challenge outraging watercress piths. Januar in AllgemeinFamilie. Ferienwohnung ab ,00EUR. Sven Buscher. Das war auch nicht here. Glittered blossoms shredded intricate. Die Anzahlung kann geleistet werden mittels: 1. Ab dem Ihre Anfrage https://johannelundsforsamling.se/kostenlose-filme-stream/kostenlos-videos-anschauen-online.php innerhalb von 12 Stunden beantwortet. Challenge sisterly chambermaid dub. Link carriageways standard subclass. Childishness selfconsciousness suede colloquially. Apartamento "Edificio Sol y Sierra" 4pax. sophia und jana mГјnster

Log in using OpenID. Documents Health and Medicine diseases Infarction. Final Programme d ta2 www wwww. We are also pleased to host all of you in Turkey for the third time.

We sincerely believe that your contributions to the outstanding scientific programme which will be combined with the historical richness and the natural beauties of Istanbul, especially during The Golden Year Celebrations of ERA-EDTA, will be of great value.

Many people have worked very hard for the organization of this Congress in order to bring you the best from a scientific, technical and social point of view.

First of all we would like to thank Prof. Rosanna Coppo for managing the scientific programme with a great effort and success and we hope that all the participants will comprehensively learn and be updated on all topics and points in their search for excellence in their careers.

This outstanding scientific programme will be a good opportunity to discuss the hottest topics in the fields of clinical nephrology, hypertension, dialysis and kidney transplantation.

Traditionally, CME sessions will be held before the official opening of the congress. We believe that these sessions will be very useful for nephrology fellows and particularly for young nephrologists.

A total number of 2, abstracts were submitted from many countries all over the world and this has seriously brought high quality to the organization.

In this respect we deeply thank Prof. Markus Ketteler and all the members of Paper Selection Committee for their hard work in evaluating and choosing the free communications and the posters that will be presented at the Congress.

It is a fascinating mixture of the past and present, old and new, modern and traditional with museums, churches, palaces, castles, mosques and bazaars, and inexhaustible sights of natural beauty.

The New Convention Centre was opened in and is located at the heart of the city, only within 10 minutes walking distance to many exclusive hotels.

This city with her historical role of serving as a cultu- 4 www. We strongly believe that this congress will have a good impression in the memories of our esteemed guests.

Hoping that you will have a most memorable scientific and cultural experience in Istanbul, we extend our warmest regards to all participants to this Congress.

Best wishes. The schedule will begin by setting an early start in the morning of May 18, with the ERA-EDTA Working Groups Scientific Fairs offering 30 CME Courses that will allow participants to receive important updates in hereditary renal disease, immune mediated glomerulonephritis, cardiovascular complications, haemodialysis, uremic toxins, transplantation and paediatric nephrology.

A disease-oriented thematic organization of the programme will guide attendants through the most recent advances in other relevant scientific areas, always integrating basic science with the clinical context, looking at new risk factors, early biomarkers and new therapeutic perspectives.

Other symposia will be held in collaboration with the American Society of Nephrology and the Chinese Society of Nephrology and will present different aspects of Nephrology in other continents.

Another novelty will be the Symposium dedicated to the countries in which Nephrology is developing, countries less frequently represented at our yearly meetings, to make them feel our congress more and more as a moment of relevant networking of the entire Renal Community.

The gems of the scientific programme will be the three outstanding plenary lectures. Rosanna Coppo Chairperson of the Scientific Committee www.

Proteins and cell physiology Carsten Wagner, Switzerland Cell signalling. Cell growth control and related alterations hypertrophy, hyperplasia and apoptosis including neoplasia Jesus Egido, Spain Renal development and cystic diseases Adrian S.

Fevzi Ersoy, Turkey Vincent L. Griffin, Ireland Josep M. Only members who have not already voted online will be able to vote onsite.

On May 21, the voting station will however close at In any case immediately at the beginning of the General Assembly see details below it will still be possible to vote.

A valid identification document i. Vote by proxy is NOT possible. Only paper ballot voting will be possible. Candidates for Ordinary Council Membership in alphabetical order according to last name : - Dimitrios S.

Access is open to current members only: please have your ERAEDTA membership card with you to allow access to the meeting access to the meeting room will be monitored.

The meeting will take place on May 21, from Membership information 2. NDT-Educational European National Societies Only a few Abstract Books have been printed.

To obtain the certificate of attendance, it is mandatory to go to this desk and have the original badge scanned; so if you are attending the entire congress, ask for your certificate only on the last day.

The certificate of attendance for the whole congress will be given on May 21, only. Coffee and tea break Complimentary coffee and tea will be served to registered delegates only in exchange of the beverage vouchers received together with the congress badge, in the catering areas of the Exhibition Level B5 , during all coffee breaks.

Accompanying guest registration is not available; however, all participants can take part, with their accompanying guests, in the Opening Ceremony and Welcome Reception on May 18, All participants must wear their name badge when attending any congress or social event.

Please note that only attendants wearing delegate badges are entitled to attend lecture and poster sessions. The information printed on the badges is exactly the one provided by participants when registering Recycle your badge!

You will find special bins at the exit of the congress centre registration area where you can throw your badge as you leave the congress.

Replacement badges will be given free of charge on May Starting May 19, the badges will be subject to a fee of euro 50 cash only. The courses are reserved to regularly registered congress members and are included in the registration fee.

An internet point is available on the Level B1; all the congress centre is provided with wi-fi, with the exceptions of the session halls.

Snack bars are available in the Exhibition Level B5. There is a bank on the Level 0, while a small business centre is on the Level B3.

No additional travel grants, reduced fees or financial support of any kind can be given to participants. Upon registration, the participant accepts this proviso.

Language of the Congress The official language of the Congress is English. No simultaneous translation will be provided. Most of the Companies that have arranged the Indu stry Sponsored Symposia will offer lunch to the participants.

Spolverini 2, Parma Italy. The registration and information desks are situated in the Registration Area of the Istanbul Congress Center.

Please refer to page 41 for further accreditation details. All speakers should bring their presentations stored on a CD-ROM, DVD or USB memory stick to this room no later than 2 hours before the start of their session or the afternoon of the day before if the slides refer to the first morning session.

The use of laptop computers and traditional slides will not be possible. The Disclosure of Interest of all Invited Speakers and Chairs will be made available at the beginning of the sessions.

Moreover, they have been posted on the Istanbul Congress website www. The press pass provides access to all sessions and symposia of this congress.

Also for onsite registration, media representatives are kindly asked to come to the press room. Please note: Public relations personnel and exhibitors cannot register as Press!

Press folders and other materials will be available. Journalists will be informed about latest research findings and will have the opportunity to speak to the principal investigators of the LBCT.

The free communications which will be presented in the symposia, instead, will last 8 minutes and will be followed by a 4 minute discussion.

All speakers are requested to keep to their allotted time. Please ensure that you are in your session hall at least 10 minutes before the session starts, and remain until the end of the session.

All presentations need to be prepared in PowerPoint. There will be two poster sessions, with the following timetable: Sunday, May 19 Monday, May 20 Authors should mount their poster on the day of their session starting at and dismantle it after hrs the same day.

The organisers will provide suitable fixing material during this period The code number of each poster indicates both the position of the display board as well as the abstract number in the Abstract CD-ROM.

Presenting authors are kindly requested to be present throughout the official poster viewing time both timeslots in order to explain their research and to answer questions from the delegates.

There will be no guided formal discussion but chairpersons will pass through the aisles to stimulate the discussion between authors of abstracts on similar topics.

Posters which are not dismounted by the end of each day will automatically be disposed of. In addition, authors are encouraged to submit their final manuscript to be peer reviewed for publication in Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation.

This online service will start from Saturday, May 18 and will remain available online for twelve months. The Presenting Authors of the two best abstracts of each category will also receive a diploma, independently of age.

The Paper Selection Committee has also selected the 10 best abstracts overall, the authors of which will receive a diploma.

No other grants or financial support of any kind, besides the grants mentioned above, will be given to Congress participants.

Delegates receiving certificates for ECMEC credits must contact their National Accreditation Authority to have the credits recognised or converted in their country of practice.

For more information, visit www. All regularly registered congress www. Congress members will then be awarded the number of credits towards the hours actually spent participating in the sessions of the congress.

Foreign money can be changed at banks during working days Exchange rates are set daily by the Central Bank. All major credit cards are accepted in most of the hotels, restaurants and shops.

Exchange offices and ATM machines are available all around the city and at both airports. It is advisable to exchange money only in banks, exchange offices or hotel receptions.

The nearest bank is located in the main entrance area of the Istanbul Congress Center. Cash machines are available in the main entrance area of the Istanbul Congress Center and on the lower level of the main building of the ICEC.

The nearest post office is located on Valikonagi Street. Banking hours: Monday - Friday a. All banks are closed at weekends and on public holidays.

Banks at airports, ports and shopping malls generally have longer opening hours. Cash machines with hour access are available in many convenient locations in the city.

Turkish cuisine has in turn influenced those and other neighbouring cuisines, including Western Europe. The Ottomans fused various culinary traditions of their realm with influences from Middle Eastern cuisines, along with traditional Turkish elements from Central Asia such as yogurt , creating a vast array of specialities - many with strong regional associations.

There is a wide choice of restaurants in Istanbul offering a broad spectrum ranging from excellent national cuisine to first class international dishes.

Traditional Turkish cuisine is famous for its many specialties prewww. There are lots of quality restaurants as well as fast-food shops in the vicinity of the hotels booked for this meeting.

Shopping One of the most enjoyable parts of a trip to Turkey is shopping for the rich variety of Turkish crafts. Istanbul is a shopping paradise with its Covered Bazaars as well as modern malls.

Being once called the city of thousand colours and fragrances Istanbul is a paradise for shoppers. One can find a very large variety of carpets, jewels, gold, leather goods etc.

The shops are open from to from Monday to Saturday. The Grand Bazaar and Spice Bazaar open their gates at and close at Big shopping malls open from to seven days a week.

Shops do not close for lunch. All major credit cards are accepted. Telephones Pay phones and credit card phones are available at the congress venue as well as in the city.

Tourist information For tourist information about Istanbul and Turkey, please visit the website www.

Tipping Service charges are included in the cost of all goods and services. Although it is not mandatory, a small tip is expected for good service.

Normally you are expected to leave a tip in cash when paying by credit card. Public Transport Istanbul Public Transportation is efficient, convenient and safe with its large number of choices of vehicles but may be very difficult to use if you do not know the language.

Thus we suggest the use of taxis as they are very reasonably priced compared to most European cities. More info for buses: www.

For detailed information: www. In Turkey taxis are colored yellow and have meters. The journey will cost approximately between 55 TL to 70 TL approx.

EUR The meter in the car applies and charges in TL currency, please note credit cards are not yet available in taxis.

The taxi rates are same during the day as well as during the night. This year runners will enjoy a 2,7 km run through the historical Yildiz Park, Besiktas that has some of the most beautiful landscapes in Istanbul.

The area of Yildiz used to be a forest in Byzantine times. Starting during the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent, the sultans made it their hunting grounds.

In the next centuries, it remained as a grove behind the seaside palaces. Currently Yildiz Park is a beautiful garden complex set in a very large park of flowers, plants and trees, gathered from every part of the world dating from the Ottoman era.

Park grounds offer panoramic views of the Bosphorus. Runners will definitely enjoy the environment during this time of the year.

The participation in the race is intended for Congress participants. They will be divided into categories according to age and gender.

Registration is free, but still must be done for administrative purposes. Registration to the Renal Run can be done up to Sunday, May 19, at Each participant will receive a number and a t-shirt.

We are looking forward to your participation and wish you a very enjoyable and fun experience. Olivier Devuyst, Zurich, Switzerland 62 www.

Denis Fouque, Lyon, France Atherosclerosis vs. Role of EuDial Peter J. Blankestijn, Utrecht, The Netherlands 74 www.

Should we screen for cancer after kidney transplantation? Josep M. Armando Torres, La Laguna, Spain 78 www. Davin, Amsterdam, The Netherlands 86 www.

Sunday, may 19 Chairs: Giorgina B. James Heaf, Herlev, Denmark www. Frazao, Porto, Portugal www. Piero Ruggenenti, Bergamo, Italy 96 www.

Adrian S. Cruzado, Barcelona, Spain Regulatory T cells in kidney transplantation: the effect of immunosuppression therapy Ondrej Viklicky, Prague, Czech Republic B cells in transplantation: effectors or regulators?

Sebastiaan Heidt, Leiden, The Netherlands www. Hoffmann, Strasbourg, France www. Stefan Jacobson, Stockholm, Sweden Effect of online haemodiafiltration on all-cause mortality and cardiovascular outcomes Ercan Ok, Izmir, Turkey The intradialytic biofeedbacks and the cardiovascular stability in hypotension-prone patients Antonio Santoro, Bologna, Italy www.

An overview T. Mini Lecture Will the new ESAs change the approach to the treatment of anaemia of patients in dialysis? Tarragona, Tarragona, Spain.

Mini Lecture Therapeutic potential of mesenchymal stem cell-derived molecules Vincenzo Cantaluppi, Turin, Italy www.

Eefje H. Janssen,1,2 Kristien J. Ledeganck,1 Joost G. Hoenderop,2 Gert A. Verpooten,1 Benedicte Y. De Winter. Bolz,1 Carsten Bergmann.

Bruno,1 S. Diella,1 B. Infante,1 E. Ranieri,1 G. Stallone,1 G. Grandaliano,1 L. Grinyo, Barcelona, Spain Immunosuppression in with the upcoming immunosuppressive drugs: looking for the best cocktail Rainer Oberbauer, Vienna, Austria Patient with a failed graft: how to manage immunosuppression.

Should the failed graft be left in place? ChemoCentryx, Inc. Renal Unit - A. Lodi, Lodi, Italy.

Jean,1 Ph. Rieu,2 D. Rivera,2 Paolo Manunta. Liam Oey,1 Peter J Blankestijn. Mondo Consortium. Cosme Argerich, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Alexey B. Zulkarnaev, Irina A. Vasilenko, Dmitriy V. Artemov, Andrey V. Surgical Dept Transplantation and Dialysis, M.

Heyman,6 Ofer Nativ,5 Zaid Abassi. Scopus, Jerusalem, Israel. Lopez-Hernandez,2,3,4 Maria P. Gregor Guron,1 Gerald F.

Pevzner,1 N. Pulkova,1 E. Plotnikov,2 L. Zorova,3 D. Silachev,2 M. Morosanova,1 G. Sukhikh,4 D. Longo,1 Helena R.

Segreto,2 Waldemar Almeida,1 Nestor Schor. De Haseth,1 E. Bax,1 Michiel L. Bots,3 Muriel P.

Grooteman,2 Rene A. Van Den Dorpel,4 Peter J. Blankenstijn,3 Menso J. Nube,2 Piet M. Ter Wee. Korea Univ Hosp, Seoul, Korea.

Nephrology, Hosp Clinico, Valladolid, Spain. Reque, Borja Quiroga, Juan M. Rogacev,1 John W. Sechenov, Moscow, Russian Federation.

Razumovsky, Saratov, Russian Federation. Saran,1 A. Tilea,1 R. Sands,1 M. Kiser,4 S. Han,1 A. Stack,3 F. Finkelstein,6 G. Eisele,5 P.

Kotanko,2 N. Levin,2 B. Maria delle Croci, Ravenna, Italy. Dept nephrology, Univ clinical centre, Skopje, F. Vifor Pharma, Glattbrugg, Switzerland.

De Goeij, Friedo W Dekker. Centro Renal, Quilpue, Chile. Stoyan Kirkovich, Stara Zagora, Bulgaria. Nephrology, Govt. Gallen, Switzerland; 7Gr.

Dimas,1 Fotios S. Iliadis,1 Thomas J. Tegos,2 Sofia G. Spiroglou,3 Christos G. Pitsalidis,2 Ioannis M. Karamouzis,4 Triantafyllos P.

Didaggelos,1 Alexandra P. Adamidou,1 Christos G. Savopoulos,1 Michael I. Karamouzis,3 Anastasios G. Orologas,2 Apostolos I.

Hatzitolios,1 Dimitrios M. Nephrology and Dialysis, A. Manzoni Hosp, Lecco, Italy. Heid,1,3 Carsten A. E, Faro, Portugal. Brotzu, Cagliari, Italy.

Julian,1 Yasuhiko Tomino,2 Ali G. Gharavi,4 Jan Novak. Margit Hosp, Budapest, Hungary. Lopez-Novoa,1,2,4 Carlos Martinez-Salgado.

Kobayashi,2,3 Richard A. Flavell,2 HansJoachim Anders. ProMetic BioSciences Inc. Lopez-Novoa,1,2,3 Carlos Martinez-Salgado.

Brocca,1,2 G. De Cal,1,2 C. Venkatareddy,1 Marboob A. Chowdhury,1 Su Q. Wang,1 Akihiro Fukuda,2 Larysa T. Wickman,1 Yan Yang,1 Roger C.

Kosa, Belgrade, Serbia. Matteo and Univ Pavia, Pavia, Italy. Bortolo Hosp, Vicenza, Italy. Nephrology and Dialysis Unit, S. Dolores Checa Andres.

Tsikliras, Sophia Mademtzoglou, Elias V. Korte,1 N. Braun,2 S. Habib,3 E. Goffin,4 A. Summers,5 L Heuveling,6 M. Dialysis, Osp Mauriziano, Turin, Italy.

A Pietrzycka,2 P. Galaverni,3 Rita Golfieri,3 Sergio Stefoni. Orsola Univ Hosp, Bologna, Italy. Univ Clinic Nephrology, Skopje, F.

Charles Nicole Hosp, Tunis, Tunisia. Rodriguez-Murillo,2 Josepm. Macdougall,1 Rebecca J. Mayo,2 Nina Oestreicher,2 Brigitte Schiller.

AND S. Strossmayer Univ Osijek, Osijek, Croatia. Gunnar Sterner, Naomi Clyne. Toblli, Federico P. Di Gennaro. Hemodialysis Unit, Diaverum, Paris, France.

Dialysis Network, B. Matteo, Univ Pavia, Pavia, Italy. Nephrology and Hemodialysis, Fond S. Maugeri, Univ Pavia, Pavia, Italy. Maria Imbaro, Italy.

Fernandez, Buenos Aires, Argentina. Suzanne Laplante,1 Peter Rutherford. SS Nephrology and Dialysis, S. Paul General Hosp, Thessaloniki, Greece.

Nephrology, Urology and nephrology center, Mansoura, Egypt. Sophia Mademtzoglou, Nikolaos Ch. Tsikliras, Elias V.

Vatazin, Alexey B. Nephrology, Hosp 12 de octubre, Madrid, Spain. Egido,2 Manuel Praga. Neumayer, Klemens Budde, Lutz Liefeldt.

Adema,1 Wim Th. Van Dorp,1 Marko J. Mallat,2 Hans W. De Fijter. Norma V. Remuzzi Will it one day be possible to engineer a complete kidney?

Fevzi Ersoy, Antalya, Turkey Sudden death in dialysis patients: why? Adrian Covic, Iasi, Romania www. Why should we care?

Mutsaers, Nijmegen, The Netherlands www. Cristian Pattaro. Drueke, on behalf of the Evolve Writing Committee. Sequeira-Lopez,4 Sebastian Bachmann,2 R.

Boumpas, Athens, Greece www. How to manage for getting patients transplanted? Mostovaya,2 Peter J. Blankestijn,2 Michiel L. Bots,3 Marinus A.

Van Den Dorpel,4 Menso J. Ter Wee,1 Muriel P. Anouk T. Krediet, Dick G. Mini Lecture Persistent post-infectious glomerulonephritis: does it exist?

Jan T. Kielstein, Hanover, Germany www. Reusz, Budapest, Hungary www. Dahlke, Regensburg, Germany High or low doses of thymoglobulin for induction therapy?

Vlahu,1 Liffert Vogt,1 Dick G. Struijk,1,2 Hans Vink,3 Raymond T. Peter Stenvinkel, Stockholm, Sweden www. Inst Nephrology, Nanjing, China.

Mini Lecture Is the kidney biopsy currently necessary in the management of lupus nephritis? Apostolos Zaravinos,1 George I. Andrey V.

Vatazin, Pavel V. Astakhov, Alexey B. Surgical Dept transplantation and dialysis, M. Dept nephrology, Ruijin Hosp, Shanghai, China.

Lomonosov, Moscow, Russian Federation. Nephrology, G. Brotzu Hosp, Cagliari, Italy. Hamlyn,2 Marco Simonini,1 Paolo Manunta.

Rapp, S. Raab, U. Sprecher, J. Funk, C. Apfel, K. Ilatovskaya,1 A. Andreev-Andrievsky,1 V. Pozdnev,2 A. Iliyn,3 N.

Nephrology, Medical Univ, Bialystok, Poland. Sklifosovsky, Moscow, Russian Federation. Daher,1 Ana Patricia F. Vieira,1 Juliana B.

Souza,1 Felipe S. Falcao,1 Cristiane R. Costa,1 Anna Allicy C. Fernandes,1 Rosa M. Mota,1 Rafael S.

Lima,1 Geraldo B. Silva Junior. Paolo Lentini,1 L Zanoli,2 A. Granata,3 A. Bortolo, Vicenza, Italy. UHC, Tirana, Albania. Vieira,1 Camilla N.

Jacinto,1 Krasnalhia Livia S. Abreu,1 Geraldo B. Leite Filho,1 Louize Emanuele O. Souza,1 Raissa M. Cavalcante,1 Geraldo B.

Silva Junior,2 Bruna M. Morais,1 Tacyano T. Leite,1 Sonia L. Silva,2 Marcus Kubrusly,1 Elizabeth F. Product Research, Chugai Pharmaceutical Co.

Cases,5 J. Calls,6 A. Martinez-Castelao,3 M. Munar,5 A. Clinic, Barcelona, Spain; 2H. Puerta de Hierro, Madrid, Spain; 3H.

Bellvitge, Barcelona, Spain; 4H. Son Dureta, Mallorca, Spain; 6H. Manacor, Mallorca, Spain. Bellvitge, Barcelona, Spain; 2H.

Clinic, Barcelona, Spain; 3H. La Paz, Madrid, Spain; 4H. Josep Trueta, Girona, Spain. Gerardo Hosp, Monza, Italy.

Cappuccino,1 G. Garibotto,1 E. Villaggio,1 F. Gianiorio,1 M. Mij,2 F. Viazzi,1 G. Salvidio,1 D. Tsotakos, Effie C. Tsilibary, Garyfalia I.

Nephrology Dept, Inst Therapy named after L. Tong Ji Univ, Shanghai, China. Dimas,1 Thomas J. Pitsalidis,2 Athanasios S.

Sioulis,1 Ioannis M. Karamouzis,4 Christos G. Marino, C. Martorano, M. Bellantoni, R. Tripepi, C. Manisha Sahay. Medical Univ Sofia, Sofia, Bulgaria.

MP P. Nephrology, H. U 12 de Octubre, Madrid, Spain. Abdul Muqueet. Rosenkranz,1 Kathrin Eller,1 Philipp Eller.

Klinkhammer,1 Marcus J. Southeast Univ, Inst Nephrology, nanjing, China. Orsola-Malpighi, Bologna, Italy. Nephrology, Osp Riuniti, Ancona, Italy.

Territorial Innovation Models In this chapter, we look at territorial innovation models, i. In our understanding, regional or national innovation systems are an overarching concept, including the different ideas developed around industrial districts, clusters, innovative milieus and technopoles, in particular focusing on those elements and processes as introduced in chapter 2, namely knowledge and learning, networks and key actors, and proximity and embeddedness.

Each industrial district specialises on a particular area and is characterised by concentrations of small businesses. Furthermore, it is characterised by a high level of interfirm cooperation, a high division of labour, relations of trust and reciprocity, but also competition between actors Lorenz , Dei Ottati In economic terms, the concentration of small firms with a similar specialisation and skills is one of the major success factors producing positive externalities such as economies of scale and scope.

Proponents of the industrial district model often tend to see the concept through rose-tinted lenses, overlooking critical factors.

Only few studies explicitly name the dark sides of the particular mixture of economic and social factors which constitute an industrial district e.

In this regard, the concept of localised production systems differentiate itself from the model of diffuse industrialisation underlying the industrial district model by including all forms of regulation and by giving up the focus on small firms.

Cainelli and Zoboli The district model also is popular in analysing territorial agglomerations in developing and emerging market economies, for example in the context of India Das , or Mexico compared to Italy Rabelotti , generally for South Eastern countries and Latin America Schmitz Research frequently has studied the emergence of industrial districts and localised production systems in an attempt to identify possibilities to transfer these models to other regions and countries.

As the development of industrial districts is grounded in place and time, with industry- and location-specific factors influencing the emergence of territorial agglomerations, Pyke and Sengenberger conclude that it is less the systems as such which can be transferred but more single elements which constitute the industrial district model.

In the late s, Piore and Sabel considered the flexible specialisation to be observed in industrial districts as the emerging mode of regulation, which was going to replace Fordism, and which could be the basis for the renewal of regional economies.

For example, this happened in Prato where the traditional textile industry was able to survive and to adapt to changing global circumstances Dei Ottati Supporters of the industrial district model thus suggested that the territorial agglomeration of an industrial district is said to facilitate innovation, thus emphasising the innovative capacities of small firms belonging to the same industry and local space.

Not surprisingly, proponents of the milieu-concept consider the industrial district as a special case of a milieu, due to its socio-cultural embeddedness, but with a low learn- 25 ing dynamic relative to innovative milieus Maillat , which in turn restricts its RTD and innovation capacity.

While this perspective would discard any innovation potential of industrial districts or localised production systems, Bianchi argues for a more balanced view.

Clusters are described as regional concentrations of enterprises across different sizes and their support infrastructure; this could be in one industry and along the value chain vertical cluster or horizontally with enterprises competing in the same sector.

Examples include universities, which produce specialised knowledge and trained personnel, industry associations offering specialised services or financing institutions such as venture capital fonds and business angels.

While this need not be negative in itself, it might hamper the full innovative potential of smaller firms to be realised in such cases where they have to follow the technological pace set by the hub firm.

Power relations are more balanced; competitive strengths of these clusters are external economies of scope and scale with industrial districts being one sub-category of this cluster form.

Another common model of spin-off clusters results from smaller firms being span out from larger companies. Regarding RTD, these clusters tend to be linked by a common technology rather by commercial interactions; and firms share a need for a uniquely skilled labour force, regardless of their business structure.

Each cluster might take a variety of generic structural forms, based on either power asymmetries, commercial relationships or interactions with non-commercial actors such as municipalities or universities; and none of these forms are mutually exclusive.

Which 27 factors render a cluster a successful territorial innovation model? In generalising the results of cluster research, Bathelt , cf.

The horizontal dimension covers issues of competition and variation, which the author considers crucial in understanding the cluster phenomenon.

In general, firms competing in the same sectors might have few incentives to cooperate, but spatial proximity allows them to closely watch competitors in order to increase their own competitiveness through product differentiation, process optimizing and decreases in costs.

The vertical cluster dimension captures traded interdependencies, which renders firms with complementary products and services more competitive through cooperation, and of untraded interdependencies Storper such as the effects of embeddedness and localised learning.

Similar to industrial districts and innovative milieus, it is the social fabric of a region which plays a particular important role in explaining economic regional development and success.

Cluster researchers assume a mutual relationship between institutions and cluster structure, where regional specialisation and agglomeration are fostered by a territorially bounded system of norms, values, codes of conducts.

The external dimension refers to the need for clusters to be integrated into external markets and technology systems in order to realise the growth potential of regional agglomerations.

This indicates an important mechanism for RTD and innovation in a regional context, namely drawing on technological resources externally to a region, but it also hints at a possible dilemma: Trade-offs might occur between the need for embeddedness, which could lead to lock-ins, and the requirement of openness.

Clusters 18 Interestingly, the industrial district literature also recognises co-evolving processes in this regard, with such systems of norms and local values being one of the success factors for districts, but also districts contributing to its development.

Finally, Bathelt mentions the relational power dimension as important element of clusters, reflecting the potential of a cluster to join its actors in mutual beneficial activities.

However, again there is a trade-off involved, one between power asymmetries and blind confidence, with the latter picking up a recent discussion in trust-related research, indicating that trust-based relations have a dark side, which most research has tended to overlook Welter and Smallbone With regard to RTD, blind confidence might contribute to lock firms in inefficient technological trajectories and increasing the risk of collective failure at cluster level Bathelt This has consequences on cluster development, as technological trajectories within clusters influence the development of the cluster, regardless of market chances and opportunities Menzel and Fornahl In taking the trade-off argument further, this could pose a problem insofar, as the main problem for regional development could become one of lack of diversity in technologies, thus further reinforcing existing lock-ins and resulting in a lack of creativity needed to foster cluster development.

Examples are the development of the Ruhr Area in Germany, which became locked in to technologically inefficient and heavily subsidised steel and coal industries since the early s, all of which prevented an effective structural change Grabher ; or Route in the Boston Area Bathelt , Saxenian This definition once more demonstrates the difficulties involved in distinguishing between different territorial innovation models, as criticised by several authors for an overview cf.

Moulaert and Sekia We nevertheless briefly describe the concept of technopoles as this is often applied to describe successful model regions in RTD and high-tech development.

The technopole concept is a popular policy model in France. Technopoles are municipalities smaller than metropolises where a distinct technology focus can be identified; concentrating on fostering high-tech sectors.

The explanation for spatial concen- 29 tration and success result either from locational strategies of high-tech firms, which themselves follow technological trajectories, or they are a result of a top-down regional development strategy defining technological trajectories Colletis-Wahl and Pecqueur , as for example in the case of Montpellier.

In reality, most technopoles appear to follow a mixed strategy where initial government programmes might trigger locational strategies of firms or, more rarely, an initial agglomeration of firms might trigger additional government support.

A distinctive element of the technopole concept, with consequences for our understanding of RTD, is that it considers technological and territorial strategies in parallel.

Therefore, technopoles often have been characterised as places where learning occurs without interaction, while in industrial districts there is an emphasis on interaction, but learning is neglected Oinas and Malecki Consequently, policy support is focused on instruments such as science and technology commercialisation programmes, venture capital initiatives, or consulting in intellectual property rights and internationalisation.

With regard to regional RTD, the technopole concept might contribute valuable lessons about the effectiveness and appropriateness of different policy measures, although it neglects the embeddedness of RTD processes within the region.

This differs for the concept of the innovative milieu. More and more research studies have emphasised the local and regional embeddedness of RTD and innovation, indicating trust, tacit regional knowledge, learning processes and informal interactions as important elements for regional technology-driven development.

For example, a study on Munich as a high technology region in Germany indicated that this local environment is characterised by extensive inter- and intraregional linkages as well as 30 by comprehensive co-operation between large and small firms Sternberg and Tamasy While this is similar to both concepts presented in previous sections, in contrast to models of industrial districts and localised production systems, the concept of the innovative milieu emphasizes a non-linear innovation process and brings learning to the forefront of regional RTD.

The milieu is seen as an incubator for innovations and the creativity needed to renew and develop regions. There are especially two processes which need to be in place for an innovative milieu, namely learning and interaction Maillat , with interactions triggering and producing collective learning processes.

Fromhold-Eisebith considers three elements as essential for a milieu or in particular a creative milieu to develop: a dense regional fabric of interpersonal relationships for information exchange, a highly social and informal character of these linkages inducing learning processes and innovations and a common image and sense of belonging to this particular region or this particular group of actors.

These linkages have to be both information-intensive and based on trust; they are built to a large extent by informal and personal relationships and face-to-face contacts FromholdEisebith Such interventions set off local synergies, which in turn foster hightech production and innovation within the region.

Issues emerging from the literature on milieus, with particular relevance for regional RTD, are the following: Most studies stress the link between spatial proximity and crea- 31 tivity as requirements for regional development, while simultaneously emphasizing that local embeddedness needs to be supported by good external linkages, in order to foster new input and know-how flows into the region.

Audretsch , cited in DeMartino et al. This also implies that regional actors need to have high cognitive and functional competencies in their respective areas in order to successfully recognise future trends and critical situations.

Triggers fostering the emergence of regional clusters are manifold. To summarize the discussion set out in this chapter and linking it back to chapter 2, territorial innovation models indicate some general requirements for regional RTD to occur, although the details obviously differ across concepts.

These include the ways in which relationships between public and private actors develop, the role for private and public actors with particular emphasis on the importance of leadership, thus highlighting the role of social processes which have to complement technological leadership, all of which assist processes of localised learning needed to set off innovation processes.

In this understanding, regional innovation systems consist of a set of non-written, tacit rules based on trust, mutual exchange and reliability Cooke ; in short: they comprise of the overall governance of regional agglomerations Moulaert and Sekia Some Examples from Around the World This chapter presents examples of good practice regions throughout Europe and beyond.

We start in section 4. This is followed by snapshots of our selected good practice regions, synthesizing results both from literature and expert interviews for a list of interviewed experts see appendix I.

Criteria for identifying Good Practice Regions Table 1 presents a matrix developed on the synthesis of literature in chapter 2 and 3 to identify possible good practice regions.

With this classification, we attempt to capture the diversity of factors influencing RTD in a regional context as well as the dynamics to be observed across different territorial models.

Here, we draw on the sectoral variant of the product-life-cycle theory which states that young industries, i. Consequently, regional development might benefit from a sectoral structure where younger industries dominate.

With this classification, we attempt to capture the role of the sectoral context. This classification takes up an argument developed by Audretsch and Feldman , namely that there exists a link between life cycles of industries and clusters of firms.

In early stages of the industry life cycle, tacit knowledge plays 33 an important role for firm development, and spatial clustering allows firms to realise and draw on knowledge spillovers.

With this classification, we aim at capturing the regional RTD context. Industrial District II.

Cluster III. Innovative Milieus IV. Technopoles 1. Age of industry 1. Tuttlingen, Jena IV. Montpellier, Sophia Antopolis 2.

Sheffield III. Tuttlingen II. Montpellier, Sophia Antopolis Source: Authors. We aimed at including a variety of regions from around the world, albeit with a particular focus on Europe.

Moreover, we have not been able to identify much relevant literature dealing with regional innovation models in a post transition context.

This is not surprising, as the concepts discussed before have originated from academic discourses which change over time.

Moreover, most concepts are primarily based on empirical observations and studies. Oresund also has been included because of the cross-border nature of its cluster.

The region North Jutland is still in the process of developing local clusters. Good Practice Regions 4.

Figure 1. It is the 3rd-largest city in India. The metropolitan area has a population of 6. It was chosen for further analysis because it is a region from a developing country, a latecomer and a quick starter regarding regional development, all of which might be interesting for regions in newly emerg- 35 ing market economies, but also for old-industrialised regions searching for new ways of overcoming structural problems.

The enterprise structure consists of many branches of MNCs e. Texas Instruments, Infosys Technologies Ltd.

In total, Bangalore is the most important centre of civil and military aircraft and aerospace industry and IT in India.

Responsible for the success are, amongst others, some general conditions and resources available in Bangalore. At first, Bangalore has a geographical position which is not only strategically important distance to Pakistan but also beneficial for worldwide economic connections e.

The natural factors such as climate and its reputation as a garden city are of advantage when it comes to life quality.

Concerning human resources Bangalore and India as a whole has comparative low labour costs, 36 of course.

Not only price for labour is an advantage but also the quality of the workforce: The Indians are seen as ambitious and capable people who are international mobile with high qualifications.

Many local universities and research centres foster knowledge spillovers into industry and close research-industry cooperation. It was the first to establish a subsidiary with a satellite link in Not to forget the colonial British heritage that, for example, influenced legal norms, constitution, education system and media and provides stability and reliable circumstances for foreign enterprises even nowadays.

Additionally, the regional identity plays an important role. A large number of highlyqualified Indians went abroad and worked and were trained in the USA, esp.

Many of them remigrated to Bangalore to manage local branches of MNCs or create their own businesses.

Moreover, some key persons fostered the regional development: The political leaders of the Indian state Karnataka in which Bangalore is situated played a pivotal role in the development of IT and business process outsourcing.

While the first helped to settle technology orientated public enterprises in Bangalore, the latter made the settlement of foreign MNCs possible.

The public support worked well for several reasons: For instance, a lot of investments were made in infrastructure e. In Bangalore subsidies were given on an enterprise level e.

Furthermore, the government supported close relations for knowledge transfer between various actors. Moreover, the remigration of high qualified Indian people seems to be an interesting strategy for regions that suffer from inhabitants moving to other cities.

Boston is the biggest city in New England, the main city of Massachusetts cf. Figure 2. Route is no newcomer to prosperity or industrial action Herbig and Golden Between and , new manufacturing jobs were created, mostly in high-technology industries, as a result the unemployment rate in Boston was almost negligible by The crisis could arise because of lock-in effects - the industries were unable to give up old structures and replacing them by new ones.

The enterprises were mainly very focused and centralised, vertically high integrated systems locked into an inefficient technological trajectory Bathelt Figure 2: Map of the USA But Boston was able to change by, amongst others, shifting from declining to growing sectors, technological diversification and individual restructuring Bathelt , Best This change makes Boston an interesting example for our study, in particular for old industry regions wanting to foster regional structural change.

Today for example, Boston is one of the leading locations for biotechnology in the world pharmaceutical and medical applications showing many linkages to international locations Haeussler ; Porter et al.

In this context, Bathelt et al. From this example one can see how the enterprises changed while responding to the market challenges. Again, there are many different reasons why Boston could overcome the crisis and regain its strength.

In the first place, its resources in terms of the excellent educational 39 infrastructure with first-class universities e. Boston is one of the most educated areas in the USA Porter et al.

Boston is a region strongly linked to knowledge and science. Furthermore, Boston profited from external effects: The technological development worldwide increasing importance of sectors like biotechnology, internet services etc.

Contrary to regions such as North Jutland or Bremen, policy and governance is of no greater importance for regional development.

Individual entrepreneurs fostered the development by founding new companies and introducing new technologies and products Rosegrant and Lampe There is obviously no single dominant key person or organisation in Boston responsible for the success or better to say the returning success , but the diversity of organisations in itself encourages experimentation and flexibility Porter et al.

The collapse of the microcomputer market in the beginning of the s was not the only crisis situations Boston came across in its history.

For example, after World War II they had to face the decline of the textile industry; and after Vietnam War the decline of the public spending for armaments meant a severe challenge for the local industries as well.

These market or structural changes can be seen as main external triggers for change and the search for and the acceptation of new market opportunities and the change of technological focus lately, emergence of biotechnology and internet services.

Bremen is a city as well as a federal state in Northern Germany situated within the larger federal state Lower Saxony.

The free hanseatic city is located along the river Weser about kilometres southwest of Hamburg see Figure 3. The city Bremen is one of two towns belonging to the federal state of Bremen the other being Bremerhaven and one of eleven European metropolitan regions in Germany.

There are , inhabitants in the city and , in the federal state. Figure 3: Map of Germany and its federal states Lower Saxony and Bremen 41 In the s and s Bremen was affected by a distinctive structural change following the downfall of the shipbuilding and steel industries Koschatzky and Stahlecker Therefore, Bremen is an interesting case study because it went through a structural change from a typical harbour and shipbuilding location relying on heavy industries to a more future orientated business location.

One of the main industry sectors is the automotive industry; here Bremen hosts the 2nd largest DaimlerChrysler plant with ca. Furthermore, Bremen is one of the leading centres of the German aerospace and aeronautics industry.

If one wants to assess the success of Bremen in terms of regional development and RTD, there arises an ambivalent picture.

Also, just to mention another example, the ability of the local university to attract research funds is extraordinary compared to other universities.

But on the other hand the unemployment rate ranks clearly above the German average, which is still pointing at structural deficits and depicting a different image of Bremen.

The fact that the knowledge intensive business service KIBS sector, seen by many as the main driver of technical change and economic progress, is still comparably less developed and dynamic in Bremen Koch and Stahlecker seems to underline that the restructuring there has not finished yet.

Concerning science, there are several higher education institutes with about 35, students. The University of Bremen is the largest amongst them educating 22, students.

Furthermore, there are renowned nonuniversity based research institutes like a Max-Planck-Institute or a Fraunhofer Institute.

These scientific establishments are the basis for an excellent workforce potential. A main issue in Bremen contributing to the emergence of an innovative milieu are policies and governance.

A lot of the money came out of external sources like EU funding or the so called federal financial compensation mechanism22 within Germany.

In Bremen, private and public expenditures are nearly identical while in Germany expenses from public sources amount only to one third.

With this framework Bremen is putting a main emphasis on developing new innovation fields like T. Overall, the institutional arrangements are characterised by a limited amount of intermediary actors, few redundancies and clear competencies Koch and Stahlecker Figure 4.

There are , inhabitants in the city and , in the agglomeration Lasch It is also of interest because it has no historical industrial background - Languedoc-Roussillon is the least industrialized region in France.

Therefore, the technopole concept clearly focuses on the service sector. Since 34, jobs have been created. Today, ca. Moreover, Montpellier is ranked the 3rd largest city in terms of congress hosting and France's third leading urban area not including Paris for strategic jobs i.

Finally, not to forget: Montpellier is debt-free. This is because Montpellier has been a university city since the 13th century with 3 universities and several technical and graduate colleges.

Furthermore, Montpellier has no restructuring burdens because of the lacking industrial background and a weaker influence of trade unions compared to traditional industry regions.

There are some external factors that triggered the development from an agricultural to a scientific region. This changed also the electoral behavior from right to left Lasch The latter enabled the change of the local government.

They initiated the technopole concept accompanied by a creative urban planning that aimed at a continuous enhancement of the quality of life and attractiveness of the city presence of urban and environmental amenities.

That included early buying and compulsory purchase of properties which enabled spatial expansion. The selection criteria for the strategic sectors to be followed were existing capacities e.

The technopole concept is supported by a special infrastructure, e. Since , more than enterprises have been accompanied by the CEEI within the Montpellier agglomeration with an above- national average probability of surviving.

A major strength of Montpellier is its communication and outreach strategy. Image campaigns successfully stress the combination of life quality, business infrastructure and environment as key arguments for investing and living in Montpellier.

This is ac- 46 companied by special support services for firms planning to localise in Montpellier Lasch Another success factor for the economic development is the regional identity, which can be characterised by a traditional sense of rivalry with the capital Paris and a strong sense of regional culture.

This helps to concentrate on local needs and local economic development Hansen In the case of Montpellier the focus on the tertiary sector and the dynamic, small-structured economy encourage a high unemployment rate because of the absence of low wage jobs and SMEs only providing very few additional jobs.

In addition, the massive expansion of the city evoked heavy traffic, a lot of construction sites, high prices for real estate and high cost of living in general.

Already since the settling policy aimed at future orientated enterprises Schmude accompanied by a strategic urban development, a gradual expansion based on an existing concept.

Furthermore, Montpellier offers a successful urban marketing strategy picturing the city as a future orientated economic metropolis.

Figure 5. The county seat is Aalborg, the 4th largest city of Denmark. North Jutland consists of 27 municipalities, its area size mounts up to more than 6, square kilometres with approx.

It is a comparatively new and artificial administrative region Dalborg and Halkier The evaluation reports state that the overall effects of these programmes were positive for the region Pedersen and Dalum North Jutland is traditionally characterized as a peripheral region with an unemployment rate among the highest in Denmark.

The economy is dominated by SMEs with a heterogeneous economic structure. There is still a fairly large share of low-tech industries such as primary industries, agriculture and fishery while the service sector is relatively small.

In North Jutland, the educational level is lower than the average of whole Denmark, although, Aalborg University is home to 12, students and employs more than 1, people Stoerring and Christensen ; Pedersen and Dalum During the s and s the region went through a structural change with employment moving from traditional sectors to service and high-tech sectors like mechanical engineering and electronics Pedersen and Dalum In this regard, two clusters are of interest in North Jutland.

Radiocommunications technology is the common knowledge base for the cluster. The cluster is focused on production and development of mobile communications equipment, cordless systems, modem and fax equipment for wire and wireless systems as well as various equipments for maritime communications and navigation Dalum et al.

This is an active, mainly policy-driven cluster initiative that started in , in an attempt to repeat the success of the ICT cluster Stoerring Now, what made the transistion from a agricultural periphery to an at least emerging technology region happen?

Aalborg University is of great advantage for North Jutland. Established in , today it has 13, students and 1, employees Pedersen and Dalum It has a priority area in ICT sector, but has also build up substantial activities within life sciences in the last years.

The university delivering engineers and basic research is seen as a core asset of the region Stoerring and Dalum The strong university research capacity is combined with a long tradition and specific character of the cooperation between university and industry.

All this helped in fostering cluster development, and it illustrates as a particular strength of the regional development in North Jutland, that the region build on its core assets, namely ICT NorCOM and the emerging life sciences at university for Biomedico.

The regional culture resp. Additionally, building up and maintaining social networks have a long tradition in the region Stoerring and Christensen Moreover, a widespread awareness of the importance of further developing the technological system can be found Dalum et al.

Concerning policies and governance as success factors for regional development the North Jutland example also gives some indication.

Here, a coherent policy framework supports the economic development. For instance, over 40 organisations are involved in economic development activities and business support Damborg and Halkier In terms of regional RTD, the cluster initiatives are an interesting element of regional development.

The answer to this cannot be given at the moment as Biomedico is still a very young emerging cluster. Figure 6. The Oresund consists of seven counties and municipalities and the area size amounts to approx.

The region includes the big cities Copenhagen in Denmark and Malmo in Sweden. Figure 6: Map of the Oresund Overall, the region has 3.

It is the most densely populated agglomeration in Scandinavia Hospers The infrastructure allows access to the region by air Copenhagen international airport and sea ports in CopenhagenMalmo, Trelleborg and Helsingborg.

Since July the Danish and the Swedish sides of the region are connected by the Oresund Bridge, the largest infrastructure project since the Channel Tunnel.

We have chosen Oresund as a region worth looking at because it is a cross-border region Euregion , thus allowing us to look at how regional development progresses in a cross-border situation, which factors are favourable, which factors might hinder it.

This may be of particular value for smaller countries such as Latvia where cross-border regional development is of particular importance.

Oresund is a hub for high-tech companies and research organisations. The sectors which are especially strong are pharmaceuticals and biotechnology, ITC, food, envi- 50 ronment, logistics and design.

It is one of the world's leading biotech clusters containing a high concentration of pharmaceutical companies.

Since the region is jointly branded as 'Medicon Valley' to reflect the region's life science strongholds Medicon Valley In the region, more than , companies, mostly SMEs, can be counted.

It is the most important investment region in Scandinavia and ranked number three in Europe when it comes to the number of investment projects Oresund Region Strong basic academic research and a long tradition for clinical research as well as a good cooperation climate between research and economy help fostering knowledge spillovers Boston Consulting Group The engagement of private actors e.

The latter, a joint non-profit-making organisation for the bio-medical firms in the Oresund 51 area, acts as an intermediate between universities, enterprises, and authorities aiming for promoting the medical sector Sornn-Friese and Sorensen Although the Oresund region follows a clear-cut branding strategy, the region building has not yet finished as well, which is shown for example in the fact, that even the definition of the region has not yet been accomplished OECD : Cross border differences in laws and institutions e.

In this regard, the Oresund region has not yet fulfilled the expectations in terms of cross-border linkage formation Sornn-Friese and Sorensen Creating a regional identity seems to be the biggest challenge for the Oresund region for the years to come.

Moreover, the region is home to the largest concentration of highly educated people in Northern Europe, a fact which helps in explaining its success in developing a cross border cluster.

Oxfordshire: From Rural Area to High-tech Economy The county Oxfordshire, consisting of five districts, is located in the south east of England to the west of London cf.

Figure 7 Oxfordshire covers an area of 1, square miles with a population of , whereof approx. It is the most rural county in the South East region with over half the people in the county living in settlements of less than 10, people.

Therefore, it has the lowest population density in the South East region Oxfordshire County Council Today, the key industries include cryogenics, instrumentation and motorsport Lawton Smith et al.

In the latter, Oxfordshire claims world leadership as it is home to two Formula 1 teams, Williams and Renault. Furthermore, Oxfordshire has the largest concentration of printing and publishing companies in the UK outside London Oxfordshire County Council Figure 7: Map of the UK and the South East region Of great interest for our analysis is the high-tech sector in which Oxfordshire showed extraordinary growth rates over the past years.

In general, the technology-based sectors e. Especially, the biotech sector forms a small but significant part of the high-tech economy in Oxfordshire Lawton Smith The high-tech orientation shows itself also in the employment structure: Oxfordshire has a comparably very high proportion of employment 4.

The resident workforce is amongst the most highly qualified in the country. Oxfordshire is home to four universities: Amongst them, the most famous is Oxford University, dating back to 53 the 13th century and hosting 17, students.

The only 10 years old Oxford Brookes University is home to 18, students. All guarantee a constant flow of high qualified people Oxfordshire County Council , The scientific scene in Oxfordshire is amended by a number of research institutes, national laboratories, hospitals and medical research units Lawton Smith et al.

These academic institutes are not only valuable as education institutes and providers for high qualified employees but also as research establishments with linkages to local industries e.

Concerning the latter, since the s and s the regional culture esp. Concerning key actors Lawton Smith et al.

In the case of Oxfordshire amongst these people are entrepreneurs, academics and members of public institutions. Overall, this underlines the importance of efficient networking and the connection to science as basic elements of successful RTD.

Although politicians are amongst the key actors policies and governance are not of the same importance for regional development as in other regions.

For example, the Trust has an innovation centre with incubator units and runs business seminars Lawton Smith et al.

Overall, Oxfordshire is a good example for a rural region building its economic development on existing strengths and enlarging them according to the environmental changes.

Moreover, it illustrates the role universities could play in fostering regional RTD. It consists of 7 communes and its capital is the city of Prato cf.

Figure 8. Overall, there are approx. Prato can look back on a long history in textile industries already starting in the Middle Ages.

Then, it had to face a phase of stagnation and restructuring 23 To limit the region analysed to the province of Prato is actually not sufficient: The textile area is quite larger than the province of Prato as there are also municipalities in the provinces of Pistoia and Florence that can be added in.

But the textile industry was able to survive and to adapt to changing global circumstances Dei Ottati Today, Prato is home to ca.

Prato produces a wide range of products made of different fibres and for diverse final uses, produced by various manufacturing processes and for heterogeneous market segments.

The concentration of small firms with a similar specialisation and skills is seen as one of the major success factors producing positive externalities such as economies of scale and scope.

For instance, as a reaction to the downturn phase in the s, the business models changed: While in the past the enterprises in Prato had a high degree of productive self-sufficiency, nowadays some intermediate production is being subcontracted to or bought from outside the district, often from countries with a lower level of labour costs.

Furthermore, the firms reacted to the crisis by upgrading and differentiating their textile products. Additionally, while the employment in the industry sector decreased an expansion of the service sector occurred Dei Ottati b, The latter refers to a remarkable birth and fast growth of firms specialised in producer services due to, for example, the outsourcing of activities before and after the production process or the emergence of new needs for, e.

As in every industrial district, the enterprise structure in Prato is characterised by an extensive division of labour.

This means the enterprises are highly dependent on one another to be able to carry out their own tasks. Typically, the added value is vertically constructed and organised by subcontracting.

While the former concentrate on product innovations, the latter often develop process innovations Dei Ottati , ; Piscitello and Sgobbi Initially, these relationships are characterised by cautiousness, while later high stability often relations persist over many years , social proximity and trustworthiness dominates Dei Ottati , It is located in the region Schwarzwald-Baar-Heuberg and situated at the 57 river Donau cf.

Figure 9. There are about , inhabitants in the district and 40, in the city Tuttlingen. Tuttlingen was first mentioned in the year A.

Figure 9: Map of Germany and the federal state Baden-Wurttemberg Tuttlingen is the location of a traditional cluster specialised in the surgical instrument industry with two distinct product sub-sectors: traditional surgical instruments and new products such as endoscopes, surgical apparatus and implants.

There are approx. The two biggest enterprises within the cluster offer nearly half of all jobs, only 42 enterprises employ more than 20 employees, and more than enterprises do not have any employees at all.

Because of the high specialisation and concentration there is also high competition within the cluster Nadvi and Halder ; Halder Therefore, the firms are largely independent of the national framework conditions and national demand but, of course, they do strongly depend on international framework conditions like the US dollar exchange rates and international demand Binder and Sautter 58 Tuttlingen keeps global linkages to e.

The firms are technology leaders in their special sector worldwide. The economic success can be measured within the population as well: For instance, since the population has increased by Firstly, there are some general conditions resp.

Tuttlingen has a highly skilled workforce with a special, tacit knowledge and specific mechanical skills that have been built up for many years.

This enables the firms to produce high product quality and makes them technology leaders in their specific field.

A high ability of knowledge absorption is indeed one of the success factors of Tuttlingen. Therefore, the regions aims for fostering cluster orientated education further.

Where radical technological innovation is limited, the rapid assimilation of incremental innovation is the key to competitiveness for producers.

The regional culture and identity is another point worth looking at. On the contrary, strong trust in personal networks is an important point in Tuttlingen.

This occupation of niches led to a wide-spread variety of products together with the ability not only to supply special and customized products but also to satisfy even smaller demand volumes.

This in itself is a success factor for the cluster again. Furthermore, the regional endeavours to foster cluster specific education and knowledge could be a good example for other regions trying to improve their performance in special sectors.

In this chapter, we conclude by introducing a multidimensional stylized matrix of good practice elements within a region, which is supposed to serve as one basis for the development of a generic and adaptive model 5.

We end by pointing out major challenges in fostering regional RTD 5. The following matrix cf. Table 4 aims at capturing i input factors required for RTD, ii processes, iii outcomes, and iv possible critical points arising throughout regional RTD processes.

In this way, we attempt to capture elements of what makes regions successful in growing and developing rather than a whole strategy for creating good practices within regional RTD.

The ideas for this matrix result from our review of literature and theoretical concepts, the review of good practice regions and expert interviews as well as from the discussions during the first international project workshop end of June in Deventer, Netherlands.

Each group of factors results in factor-specific outcomes, and factorspecific processes are needed to influence the level and existence of regional RTD.

We also indicate critical points possibly hindering the influence of these factors on RTD. We recognise overlaps, but also a need to conceptually distinguish between the three main categories of factors and processes influencing RTD.

We also recognise a need to simultaneously focus on factors and processes as it is the interplay between both that can foster RTD.

RTD is facilitated by general conditions and resources. This includes the endogenous resource base within a region, its natural environment determining the quality of life within 62 a region, its industry base and market structures.

Regarding the institutional infrastructure, systemic factors refer to the overall network infrastructure required for RTD within a region, including political institutions on macro level, business intermediaries on meso level and the general business support infrastructure on micro firm level.

Individually, the institutional infrastructure needs to be complemented by key actors such as high communicators on macro level political level , network promoters on the meso and star scientists on micro level.

Regional RTD obviously needs individuals with high commitment and a vision for their region. This is also reflected in the soft factors needed for the institutional RTD infrastructure to evolve, such as the openness of a region, the open minds and curiosity of actors, all of which are reflected in a high level of cooperation between different actors and good networking skills.

Processes needed for improving or building such a RTD institutional infrastructure refer to good governance within and amongst networks on different levels as well as the creation of trust-based relationships amongst different institutions and actors.

People also matter with regard to regional knowledge, knowledge transfer and regional learning. Individually, knowledge might be attracted to a region 63 by policies aimed at attracting highly skilled labour.

This could include remigration policies as in the case of Bangalore, where the Indian government fostered the remigration of those Indians who had previously worked in the Silicon Valley.

This also could refer to policies geared at retaining skilled graduates within a region or at educating them as in the example of Tuttlingen, where the business school offers a specialised MBA programme tailor-made for the surgical instrument cluster.

All this helps foster learning processes within the region. Challenges in Fostering Regional RTD The matrix presented above illustrates a variety of elements and processes on different levels which can foster regional RTD, and consequently lead to more innovative and entrepreneurial regions.

However, our analysis so far also confirms that it is the interplay of various factors with region-specific resource endowments which will foster regional development.

We need a process-oriented view on RTD. For example, a sole focus on building up stronger local or regional linkages will guarantee nothing.

Malmberg , p. It is in this context, that lock-in effects and negative path-dependencies could hamper regional development even in cases which one might consider good practice examples.

Lock-in effects can have several reasons. Regarding socio-economic influences on regional RTD, lock-in effects are the dark side of embeddedness, arising from networking and closed networks, as was illustrated vividly by Grabher for the Ruhr Region in Germany.

The reasons for this phenomenon are manifold: embedded ties could be used increasingly as control mechanisms instead of reflecting trust-based relationships; exclusive and closed networks lead to information isolation, there is an increasing trade-off between stable links and more profitable relations outside the network, the predisposition to render firms in networks highly dependent on each other, the potential problem of reciprocal ties that stronger firms might have to back up weaker firms.

Negative path dependencies27 also occur with regard to technological development. Path dependency has its advantages, but it could also contribute to technological lock-in effects as happened in the case of Route Bathelt Technological lock-ins at firm level can usually be explained by switching costs, costs of not learning as fast as competitors, and the genuine uncertainty about the actual benefits of switching Arthur , Sornn-Friese and Sorensen High costs of switching encourage individuals to recur to a familiar course of action, which as a rule reflect their previous experiences and tacit knowledge.

This in turn tends to reinforce trusted and known codes of conduct, resulting at the individual level in an escalating commitment to viable, but not necessarily the best courses of actions Whyte This in turn influences the possibility of a cluster to 26 Entropy is a concept from natural science.

In social science it is used to explain what happens when systems are closed and do not allow for any new input from outside.

Are these observable relationships portents of the future that might bring very different outcomes? This first of all concerns the pertinent question of how far policy is able to influence regional development paths, which in turn influences the role policies should and could play.

These cases, he suggests, have fairly well documented uniqueness and it is questionable whether these unique development paths can be followed by others.

There are two questions which need to be solved in this regard. Arthur This could be extended to spatial developments where path-dependent behaviour is not negative as such: Arthur presented a model of spatial path dependency, illustrating cluster tendencies as the probability function of already existing firms in a given location.

Selfreinforcement mechanisms interplay of institutions and patterns of choice add to this. Similarly, Bremen presents a case of regional RTD heavily supported by the local government, thus questioning its longer term sustainability.

The question remaining open here is one of how best to support regional RTD and the role policy can play in fostering it.

Secondly, there is an issue related to whether good practices can be transferred and replicated in other regional contexts.

The conceptual and empirical evidence presented in this report points out that it is less strategies and concepts we can transfer from one region to another but rather elements and processes which need to be taken into account, and which might have some scope for replication.

In summing up, this indicates that regions should draw on their existing core competencies and regional advantages and using those to make a difference in RTD.

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