Berlin 1944 Navigationsmenü
März flogen Bomberverbände der USAAF den ersten Tagesangriff auf Berlin. Mit 69 verlorenen Bombern war es der. Dezember bis Januar im Elsass und in Lothringen) war es Hitler gelungen, die Niederlage weiter zu verzögern. Doch Kraftstoff- und. App in die Geschichte. johannelundsforsamling.seieg Berlin am 8. April Der Rundfunk hat anfliegende feindliche. Ab März gehörten Tagesangriffe der US Air Force zum Berliner Kriegsalltag. Das Foto zeigt Bomber vom Typ B („Flying Fortress“). Produzent Konstantin von zur Mühlen (44) hat aus zehntausenden Filmrollen einen minütigen Farbfilm aus den Jahren /45 mit.
Dezember bis Januar im Elsass und in Lothringen) war es Hitler gelungen, die Niederlage weiter zu verzögern. Doch Kraftstoff- und. Finstere Ruinen statt Lichterglanz, strenge Rationen statt bunter Teller. Die Kriegsweihnacht war ein freudloses Fest. Ab März gehörten Tagesangriffe der US Air Force zum Berliner Kriegsalltag. Das Foto zeigt Bomber vom Typ B („Flying Fortress“).
By May , 1. Roosevelt , issued a request to the major belligerents to confine their air raids to military targets. The UK had a policy of using aerial bombing only against military targets and against infrastructure such as ports and railways of direct military importance.
While it was acknowledged that the aerial bombing of Germany would cause civilian casualties, the British government renounced the deliberate bombing of civilian property, outside combat zones, as a military tactic.
Between and , the policy of bombing only targets of direct military significance was gradually abandoned in favour of " area bombing " — large-scale bombing of German cities to destroy housing and civilian infrastructure.
Although killing German civilians was never an explicit policy, it was obvious that area bombing would cause large-scale civilian casualties.
With the technology available at the time, the precision bombing of military targets was possible only by daylight and it was difficult even then.
Daylight bombing raids conducted by Bomber Command involved unacceptably high losses of British aircraft, and bombing by night led to far lower British losses, but was of necessity indiscriminate due to the difficulties of nocturnal navigation and bomb aiming.
Before , Berlin, at kilometres miles from London, was at the extreme range attainable by the British bombers then available to the Allied forces.
It could be bombed only at night in summer when the days were longer and skies clear—which increased the risk to Allied bombers. The first RAF raid on Berlin took place on the night of 25 August ; 95 aircraft were dispatched to bomb Tempelhof Airport near the center of Berlin and Siemensstadt , of which 81 dropped their bombs in and around Berlin,   and while the damage was slight, the psychological effect on Hitler was greater.
The bombing raids on Berlin prompted Hitler to order the shift of the Luftwaffe's target from British airfields and air defenses to British cities, at a time during the Battle of Britain when the British air defenses were becoming exhausted and overstretched.
In the following two weeks there were a further five raids of a similar size, all nominally precision raids at specific targets,  but with the difficulties of navigating at night the bombs that were dropped were widely dispersed.
The raids grew more frequent in , but were ineffective in hitting important targets. The head of the Air Staff of the RAF, Sir Charles Portal , justified these raids by saying that to "get four million people out of bed and into the shelters" was worth the losses involved.
The Soviet Union started a bombing campaign on Berlin on 8 August that extended into early September. Navy bombers, operating from the Moonzund Archipelago conducted 8 raids to Berlin with 3—12 aircraft in each raid.
Army bombers, operating from near Leningrad, executed several small raids to Berlin. In total in , 33 Soviet aircraft dropped 36, kilograms 79, pounds of bombs on Berlin.
Combat and operational losses for the Soviets tallied 17 aircraft destroyed and 70 crewmen killed. Harris said: "The Nazis entered this war under the rather childish delusion that they were going to bomb everyone else, and nobody was going to bomb them.
They sowed the wind, and now they are going to reap the whirlwind. At the same time, new bombers with longer ranges were coming into service, particularly the Avro Lancaster , which became available in large numbers during During most of , however, Bomber Command's priority was attacking Germany's U-boat ports as part of Britain's effort to win the Battle of the Atlantic.
During the whole of there were only nine air alerts in Berlin, none of them serious. The Battle of Berlin was launched by Harris in November , a concerted air campaign against the German capital, although other cities continued to be attacked to prevent the Germans concentrating their defences in Berlin.
Harris believed this could be the blow that would break German resistance. A prelude to the raids came from the De Havilland Mosquito , which hit the capital on 30 January , the tenth anniversary of the Nazis' Machtergreifung.
That same day, both Göring and Goebbels were known to be giving big speeches that were to be broadcast live by radio.
At precisely Later that day, No. These were great propaganda raids which—much as the Doolittle Raid on the Japanese home islands had done for boosting American morale in April —were a severe embarrassment for the German leadership.
Bomber Command decided that they had to mark the occasion with a raid on Berlin, and it was decided that the Mosquito was the right aircraft for the job.
Accordingly, No. The first raid of the battle occurred on 18—19 November Berlin was the main target, and was attacked by Avro Lancasters aided by four Mosquitos.
The city was under cloud and the damage was not severe. The second major raid was on the night of 22—23 November This was the most effective raid by the RAF on Berlin.
The raid caused extensive damage to the residential areas west of the centre, Tiergarten and Charlottenburg , Schöneberg and Spandau.
Because of the dry weather conditions, several firestorms ignited. The Kaiser Wilhelm Memorial Church was destroyed.
On 17 December, extensive damage was done to the Berlin railway system. By this time cumulative effect of the bombing campaign had made more than a quarter of Berlin's total living accommodation unusable.
On 15—16 February, important war industries were hit, including the large Siemensstadt area, with the centre and south-western districts sustaining most of the damage.
This was the largest raid by the RAF on Berlin. Raids continued until March These raids caused immense devastation and loss of life in Berlin.
The 22 November raid killed 2, Berliners and rendered , homeless. The following night, 1, were killed and , made homeless. During December and January regular raids killed hundreds of people each night and rendered between 20, and 80, homeless each time.
The 16 raids on Berlin cost Bomber Command more than aircraft, with their crews killed or captured. This was a loss rate of 5.
Having 25 aircraft destroyed meant that the fighting force of the squadron had to be replaced in three months. At these rates Bomber Command would have been wiped out before Berlin.
In , the U. Army and the Standard Oil company built a set of replicas of typical German working class housing estates, " German Village ", which would be of key importance in acquiring the know-how and experience necessary to carry out the firebombings on Berlin.
It was done with the assistance of Erich Mendelsohn , a Berlin architect who fled the Nazis in Jimmy Doolittle, had implemented a major change in fighter defense of USAAF strategic bomber formations that had bolstered the confidence of U.
Until that time, Allied bombers avoided contact with the Luftwaffe; now, the Americans used any method that would force the Luftwaffe into combat.
Implementing this policy, the United States looked toward Berlin. The Allies replaced their losses; the Luftwaffe could not. At the tail end of the Battle of Berlin the RAF made one last large raid on the city on the night of 24—25 March, losing 8.
Eisenhower and Spaatz made it clear that the attack on Berlin was of great political importance in that it was designed to assist the Soviet offensive on the Oder east of Berlin, and was essential for Allied unity.
In the raid, led by Lieutenant-Colonel Robert Rosenthal of the th Bombardment Group — commanding the entire First Air Division 's bomber force on this raid  — Friedrichstadt the newspaper district , and Luisenstadt both divided between the boroughs of Kreuzberg and Mitte , the central area and some other areas, such as Friedrichshain , were severely damaged.
The bombs used in this raid consisted mostly of high explosive ordnance and not incendiary munitions. The area that suffered the greatest damage did not include railway main lines , which were more northern Stadtbahn and southern Ringbahn , but did include two terminal stations of Berlin Anhalter and Potsdamer Bahnhof , the latter of which had already been out of service since due to bomb destruction.
The bombing was so dense that it caused a city fire spreading eastwards, driven by the wind, over the south of Friedrichstadt and the northwest of neighboured Luisenstadt.
The fire lasted for four days until it had burnt everything combustible in its range to ashes and after it had reached waterways, large thoroughfares, and parks that the fire could not jump over.
Due to the exhaustion of German supplies the German anti-aircraft defense was under-equipped and weak so that out of the 1, US aircraft committed, only 36 were shot down and their crews taken as prisoners-of-war.
Rosenthal was among those shot down and survived, but was rescued by the Soviet armed forces and eventually returned to England.
A number of monuments, such as French Luisenstadt Church, St. Michael's Church , St. Among the dead was Roland Freisler , the infamous head justice of the People's Court.
It was also attacked by aircraft of the Red Air Force, especially in as Soviet forces closed on the city.
British bombers dropped 45, tons of bombs; the Americans dropped 23, tons. About a third of the city, especially the inner-city, was in ruins: , apartments had been destroyed, and only 2.
When the Soviets who were the first occupying power arrived in Berlin, they saw a city devastated by the air raids and street fighting.
According to Soviet estimations, the clean-up operation would last 12 years. On May 29, all women aged between 15 and 65 were conscripted as Trümmerfrauen rubble women.
In all, 60, women worked to rebuild Berlin. The biggest problem that the Berliners had to face was the threat of starvation.
German war-time ration cards were no longer valid. How were they separated from Germans? How were they returned to their respective countries and how were they treated upon their return.
But most importantly, how many of these laborers were truly forced to go to Germany to work and how many voluntarily went to make money?
Can you suggest any books or studies that would answer these questions? Your email address will not be published.
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Learn how your comment data is processed. Skip to content The production of German munitions and armaments, including many of her secret weapons programmes was now heavily dependent on foreign labour.
Foreign workers in a munitions factory being addressed by Dr Robert Ley, head of the Nazi labour organisation in August Journalist Ursula von Kardorff was still keeping her diary, noting every aspect of life in wartime: 30 November The Friedrichstrasse station, with its broad stairways, which lead to a kind of underworld, is supposed to be bomb-proof.
Most Germans living in towns and cities had had some experience of bombing by now. Leave a Reply Cancel reply Your email address will not be published.
During this period, the average Berliner was around 6 to 9 kg 13 to 20 lb underweight. Excellent aerial view showing devastation and bombed out buildings over wide area.
Overall, Berlin was bombed times by British, American and Russian aircraft. The reconstruction process for Germany began fully in but the city was not truly rebuilt until the s.
Statisticians calculated that for every inhabitant of Berlin there were nearly 30 cubic meters of rubble. Any factual error or typo? Let us know.
The forces available to General Weidling for the city's defence included roughly 45, soldiers in several severely depleted German Army and Waffen-SS divisions.
To the north of the city was the 9th Parachute Division. On 26 April, Chuikov 's 8th Guards Army and the 1st Guards Tank Army fought their way through the southern suburbs and attacked Tempelhof Airport, just inside the S-Bahn defensive ring, where they met stiff resistance from the Müncheberg Division.
The foreign contingents of the SS fought particularly hard, because they were ideologically motivated and they believed that they would not live if captured.
In the early hours of 29 April the Soviet 3rd Shock Army crossed the Moltke bridge and started to fan out into the surrounding streets and buildings.
It was not until the damaged bridges were repaired that artillery could be moved up in support. After very heavy fighting they managed to capture Gestapo headquarters on Prinz-Albrechtstrasse , but a Waffen-SS counter-attack forced the Soviets to withdraw from the building.
By the next day, 30 April, the Soviets had solved their bridging problems and with artillery support at they launched an attack on the Reichstag, but because of German entrenchments and support from The German troops inside made excellent use of this and were heavily entrenched.
At that point there was still a large contingent of German soldiers in the basement who launched counter-attacks against the Red Army. During the early hours of 30 April, Weidling informed Hitler in person that the defenders would probably exhaust their ammunition during the night.
Hitler granted him permission to attempt a breakout through the encircling Red Army lines. As the perimeter shrank and the surviving defenders fell back, they became concentrated into a small area in the city centre.
By now there were about 10, German soldiers in the city centre, which was being assaulted from all sides. One of the other main thrusts was along Wilhelmstrasse on which the Air Ministry, built of reinforced concrete , was pounded by large concentrations of Soviet artillery.
During the early hours of 1 May, Krebs talked to General Chuikov, commander of the Soviet 8th Guards Army,  informing him of Hitler's death and a willingness to negotiate a citywide surrender.
In the afternoon, Goebbels and his wife killed their children and then themselves. Only those that went west through the Tiergarten and crossed the Charlottenbrücke a bridge over the Havel into Spandau succeeded in breaching Soviet lines.
General Weidling surrendered with his staff at hours. He was taken to see General Vasily Chuikov at , where Weidling ordered the city's defenders to surrender to the Soviets.
The strong garrison of the Zoo flak tower left the building. There was sporadic fighting in a few isolated buildings where some SS troops still refused to surrender, but the Soviets reduced such buildings to rubble.
At some point on 28 April or 29 April, General Heinrici, Commander-in-Chief of Army Group Vistula, was relieved of his command after disobeying Hitler's direct orders to hold Berlin at all costs and never order a retreat, and was replaced by General Kurt Student.
There remains some confusion as to who was in command, as some references say that Student was captured by the British and never arrived.
Request immediate report. Firstly of the whereabouts of Wenck's spearheads. Secondly of time intended to attack. Thirdly of the location of the IX Army.
Fourthly of the precise place in which the IX Army will break through. Fifthly of the whereabouts of General Rudolf Holste 's spearhead.
In the early morning of 30 April, Jodl replied to Krebs: . Firstly, Wenck's spearhead bogged down south of Schwielow Lake. Thirdly, bulk of the IX Army surrounded.
Fourthly, Holste's Corps on the defensive. While the 1st Belorussian Front and the 1st Ukrainian Front encircled Berlin , and started the battle for the city itself , Rokossovsky's 2nd Belorussian Front started his offensive to the north of Berlin.
The successes of the 1st Ukrainian Front during the first nine days of the battle meant that by 25 April, they were occupying large swathes of the area south and south-west of Berlin.
Their spearheads had met elements of the 1st Belorussian Front west of Berlin, completing the investment of the city.
At dawn on 28 April, the youth divisions Clausewitz , Scharnhorst , and Theodor Körner attacked from the south-west toward the direction of Berlin.
They were part of Wenck's XX Corps and were made up of men from the officer training schools, making them some of the best units the Germans had in reserve.
According to Wenck, no attack on Berlin was possible. Nearly 30, Germans were buried after the battle in the cemetery at Halbe.
Nobody knows how many civilians died but it could have been as high as 10, Wenck crossed the Elbe under small arms fire that afternoon and surrendered to the American Ninth Army.
According to Grigoriy Krivosheev 's work based on declassified archival data, Soviet forces sustained 81, dead for the entire operation, which included the battles of Seelow Heights and the Halbe;  another , were reported wounded or sick during the operational period.
In those areas that the Red Army had captured and before the fighting in the centre of the city had stopped, the Soviet authorities took measures to start restoring essential services.
During and immediately following the assault,   in many areas of the city, vengeful Soviet troops often rear echelon units  engaged in mass rape , pillage and murder.
All they knew about foreign countries was there was unemployment, starvation and exploitation. And when they came to Europe they saw something very different from Stalinist Russia They were really furious, they could not understand why being so rich, Germans came to Russia".
Courtesy of the Azoor Postcard Collection. Furnishings of a study with chandelier, carpet, bookshelves, desk and chairs.
Let's go to Berlin! Part of the Bendlerblock, a complex of offices in Stauffenbergstrasse. It was here that Colonel Claus Schenk Graf von Stauffenberg and other members of the failed 20 July plot that attempted to assassinate Adolf Hitler were executed.
Photograph, c Soviet tank T with the inscription 'to Berlin' during the historical staging of 'Karpaty ' in Medzilaborce, Slovakia.
City map of Ziebice in Poland with circular town wall. Juli - 2. Volksgerichtoshof Berlin. Juli vor dem Volksgerichtshof.
Rudolf Nov. Captive women working at the Ravensbruck concentration camp. Bendlerblock Memorial on the execution site of the perpetrators of a coup against Hitler on July 20 German Nazi party leader.
Photographed addressing the Berlin Home Guard from the balcony of the Ministry of Propaganda, or It was set up by the Nazi Party on the orders of Adolf Hitler and its existence was announced on 16 October It was staffed by conscripted males between 16 and 60 years who were not already serving in other military units.
Artist: Unknown Nazis dining at the Berlin opera, Germany, c Memorial to the July plotters at the Bendlerblock on Stauffenbergstrasse.Finstere Ruinen statt Lichterglanz, strenge Rationen statt bunter Teller. Die Kriegsweihnacht war ein freudloses Fest. Zu diesem Bericht gehören einige Fotos, die ich im Februar vom Flakturm Humboldthain aufgenommen hatte - auf einem ist ein kleines Stück vom Kopf.